Bariatric surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that is achieved through the modification of the stomach with the help of a gastric band. It can also be done through the removal of a portion of the stomach or by re routing the small intestine to a small pouch. Bariatric surgery is performed on those patients suffering from obesity and other weight problems.
Long term studies depict a significant reduction in weight, recovery from diabetes and reduction in mortality rate of 23% to 40% after the procedure. There are different types of bariatric surgeries that can be performed according to each patient’s condition. Here are the different types of Bariatric Surgeries:
Often considered the gold standard of weight loss surgery, gastric bypass is also known as Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. The procedure involves creating a small pouch by dividing the top of the stomach from the rest of the stomach. After this, the first portion of the small intestine is halved, and the bottom end is brought up and connected to the newly created stomach pouch. The top portion of the divided small intestine is attached to the intestine so that the acids and digestive enzymes will eventually mix with the food for seamless digestion. This type of surgery results in long term weight loss and also helps in restricting the amount of food intake.
This bariatric surgery involves the removal of up to 80% of the stomach. It is also known as Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy. The stomach, post surgery, resembles a banana shape and is significantly smaller than the original. This results in the consumption of smaller portions of food items and, therefore, fewer calories. It also impacts gut hormones that curb hunger, satiety and blood sugar. This surgery has been proven to control type 2 diabetes as well. This is a non reversible procedure so patients must be absolutely sure of themselves before undergoing this surgery.
Adjustable Gastric Band:
The adjustable gastric band, often known simply as the band, is placed around the upper portion of the stomach creating a tiny pouch above the band and a large segment below the band. The idea behind the insertion of the band is to invoke a feeling of fullness by consuming smaller quantities of food. The position of the band can be adjusted at different points in time by filling the band with sterile saline, which is injected through a port placed under the skin. The biggest advantage to this surgery is that there is no cutting of the stomach and rerouting of intestines. However, patients who have undergone this surgery must be extremely careful post surgery as it requires a strict post operative diet and follow up visits to the doctor.
Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS) Gastric Bypass:
Similar to the Sleeve Gastrectomy procedure, BPD/DS is a type of bariatric surgery where a smaller stomach pouch is created by removing a portion of the stomach. The first segment of the small intestine called duodenum, is divided into two parts. The latter portion of this is then brought up and attached to the newly created stomach. Thus, when food is consumed, it goes through the stomach and empties into the last portion of the small intestine. This helps reduce fat by around 70% and allows patients to eat normal meals after the surgery.
The above procedures all result in significant weight loss and improvement in quality of life for those suffering from obesity and other weight problems. There are certain risks and requirements for each procedure. But with a strict adherence to the doctor’s guidelines and an experienced medical team, any complications are likely to be resolved successfully.