Nyctalopia also known as night blindness is a situation that creates difficulty with vision in comparatively low light. It is an indication of numerous eye diseases. Night blindness can exist from birth or can be caused by damage. Lack of vitamin A is also a major reason behind it. It can be described as an inadequate adaptation to darkness.
- Vitamin A deficiency means lack of vitamin A in the blood and tissues. This is the first and foremost reason behind night blindness and is the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness. It is critical to reduce the rate of child mortality. Around 200,000 to 400,000 undernourished children go blind every year from lack of vitamin A and around 50% of these children die within a year through complete blindness.
- Retinitis pigmentosa is an inborn, degenerative eye disease that causes harsh vision loss due to the progressive degeneration of the rod photoreceptor cells in the retina. The patient, in the initial phase of retinitis pigmentosa, perceives compromised minor and weak light vision due to the decline of the rod photoreceptors. Later, this will be followed by irregularities in the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium.
- Retinal detachment is an abnormal condition of the eye in which the retina get disconnected from the bottom layer. In about 7% of these cases, it has been seen that both eyes have been affected. Without a cure, unending loss of vision can arise.
- Cataracts are an unproblematic clouding of the eye lens. The first symptom is that light being blocked by the cataract, leading to difficulties in seeing clearly. Over an extensive period of time, cataracts can be a reason for blindness. They are often seen in aged people , but sometimes they can build up in younger people as well.
- Choroideremia is a very exceptional disease which results in progressive loss of vision , almost exclusively in males. Night blindness is the first common symptom in this disease during the patient’s childhood.
- Herbal remedies such as Phytotherapy: The major role of phytotherapy in the treatment of night blindness involves using a number of plants and their extracts that enhance the eye’s capability to see in the dark.
- Internal use preparation :This includes the use of dandelions to arouse the assimilation of light. Blueberry is also helpful in capturing images in dim light and conditions such as glaucoma or myopia.
- Proper nutrients: Night blindness can be improved with a diet which is rich in plants that arouse the amalgamation of light on the retina. Eating vegetables, especially those containing vitamin A , and other antioxidant plant food can result in a prevention or slow down of the condition.
- Surgery :Only cataracts cannot be cured by medication. In this case, surgery is very essential to prevent life-long blindness.
People are advised not to neglect the first stage of night blindness as it can quickly lead to a drastic deterioration of vision. This is a condition for which many options and treatments are available, so patients are advised not to let the condition worsen and to seek medical help as soon as possible.