This is a synthetic process that allows a dialysis machine to filter your blood, removing waste and water. The process assists the body's impaired kidney function and is usually adopted while the patient undergoes treatment for the underlying disease, or till a suitable donor kidney becomes available. In the dialysis machine, the blood passes through a filter known as a dialyser, which imitates the kidney and filters out impurities and water from the blood.
To be able to connect your blood flow to a dialysis machine, an arteriovenous (AV) connection is made from your arm to the dialysis machine. The most common of these is the AV fistula which requires a minor surgical procedure to connect an artery and vein to the dialysis machine. Over time, the fistula becomes stronger and there is less pain when using needles to connect to the machine. The other option is an AV graft, which is also effective but requires more maintenance.
FNAC or Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology involves using a thin, hollow needle to remove samples of cells from tissue or ﬂuid in an organ or a lump. This is usually done to identify the type of cells inside a lump found in the breast or a gland in the neck, like the thyroid gland. It is a very useful way for detecting cancer.