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Infertility And Sex-Related Disorders

Infertility is a reproductive system condition that occurs when a woman is unable to conceive after 12 months of sexual activity. Sexual related disorders can occur in both partners, lead to problems in every stage of the sexual response and prevent conception. 

Diagnosis and Treatment include:

Male Infertility: 

  • Physical Examination and Medical History

  • Semen Analysis

  • Scrotal Ultrasound

  • Hormone Testing

  • Post-ejaculation Urinalysis

  • Testicular Biopsy

  • Specialized Sperm Function Tests

  • Transrectal Ultrasound

  • Surgery

  • Treatments for sexual intercourse problems including medication and counselling.

  • Assisted Reproductive Technology: Sperm samples are inserted into the female genital tract, or used for Invitro fertilization.

Female Infertility:

  • Intrauterine Insemination: Fertilization is facilitated by placing sperm inside the uterus.

  • In-vitro Fertilization (IVF): Mature eggs are artificially fertilised in a suitable environment before placing them in the uterus. 

  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injections: Fertilization is facilitated by injecting a single sperm into the centre of the egg via a micropipette (a tiny needle) before placing it in the uterus. 

  • Laser-Assisted Hatching: An anodyne laser is used to help the embryo to “hatch” or penetrate through its protective outer layer or “shell”.

  • Blastocyst Culture And Transfer: The fertilised embryo is developed in a suitable lab environment for 4 to 6 days before transferring to the womb.

  • Cryopreservation: Eggs, embryos, and sperm are preserved at sub-zero temperatures for future use.

Intersex conditions: 

Intersex is blending or mixing of the internal and external features of male or female which can be corrected using:

  • Masculinising Surgery: It is also called gender-affirming surgery. Masculinising surgery involves, 

    • Removal of breasts

    • Placement of pectoral implants

    • Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)

    • Salpingo-oophorectomy (removal of fallopian tubes and ovaries) 

    • Vaginectomy (removal of the vagina)

    • Scrotoplasty (scrotum creation)

    • Metoidioplasty (lengthening of the clitoris)

    • Phalloplasty (penis creation)

  • Feminising Surgery: It is also called gender-affirming surgery. Feminising surgery involves, 

    • Breast Augmentation (increase breast size).

    • Facial Feminisation Surgery (face is given a more feminine appearance).

    • Body-contouring Procedures (abdominoplasty, gluteal augmentation and liposuction).

    • Voice Feminization

    • Tracheal Shave 

    • Hair-transplant Surgery 

    • Orchiectomy (testicles removal)

    • Vaginoplasty (vaginal creation)

    • Vulvoplasty (vulva creation)

    • Clitoroplasty (clitoris creation)

    • Labiaplasty (labia creation)

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