Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is a structural abnormality of the heart, present at birth. The defect is present mostly in the blood vessels near the heart, thereby causing obstruction in the blood flow. Congenital Heart disease is of two types: Cyanotic (the skin becomes blue, due to the lack of oxygen) and Non Cyanotic. The exact cause for CHD is unidentifiable in most cases. Infection from Rubella virus along with retinoic acids and chemicals during pregnancy may be a factor for CHD.
According to a study published in the India Academy of Pediatrics, CHD is a condition seen in every 3.9 births per 1000 births in India. The defects are generally caught immediately after birth, however in some cases it may be discovered later.
Many things like Down’s syndrome, a mother suffering from conditions like diabetes, rubella, or using anti-seizure medication or anti acne medication along with genetic predisposition can cause CHD in a baby. Other factors like smoking and consuming alcohol while pregnant can also cause CHD in a baby.
The symptoms include:
Diagnosis for CHD is based on the type and severity of the condition. Given below are few basic tests carried out to diagnose CHD.
Given below are a few preventive measures a pregnant woman can take to avoid CHD in a baby. Women undergoing pregnancy should avoid smoking, consuming alcohol and getting infections.
Treatment options for CHD vary depending on the severity of the condition. Mentioned below are the treatment options for CHD in children.
CHD in adults is a rare occurrence and often requires surgery to improve heart functioning. Signs and symptoms of CHD in adulthood can include:
In any cases a follow up for both adults and children is compulsory after being treated for CHD.
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