A Complete Guide to Liver Transplant
Department of Transfusion Medicine
Aug 09, 2022
A liver transplant uses a healthy liver from a donor to replace a damaged liver. The surgery removes a diseased or injured liver and replaces it with a donated organ. The liver is in the belly's upper right section and handles vital body functions, including filtering waste products from the blood, making proteins that aid digestion, and producing bile. More than 20% of deaths globally due to liver diseases happen in India. Early screening, timely medical care, and lifestyle changes are needed to prevent liver diseases. A liver transplant is mainly needed to treat conditions including Cirrhosis (scarring), Liver Cancer, Hepatitis B or C, and Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD). Manipal Hospitals has the best liver transplant doctors in Jaipur to offer complete patient care.
Manipal Hospitals has India's most advanced liver transplant program, providing patients with world-class care from our expert team of doctors, nurses, and support staff. We offer a range of services, including liver transplants, complex liver and pancreatic surgeries, as well as diagnosis of liver diseases using the latest infrastructure and best equipment. Our liver transplant surgeons in Jaipur are known for world-class liver transplants and complex liver and pancreatic surgeries. Our focus is on the needs of every patient who comes through our doors; we believe that each one deserves the best possible care no matter their circumstances.
Liver failure can be due to a variety of conditions like Hepatitis B and C, Alcoholic liver disease, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, genetic diseases affecting the liver, including hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease, diseases affecting the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile away from the liver), such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and biliary atresia.
The liver is the largest internal organ performing several critical functions, and a liver transplant is usually referred to when it stops performing those functions because of chronic liver disease or sudden failure of a previously normal liver.
But the number of people waiting for a liver transplant exceeds the number of available donor livers. Hence, Manipal Hospitals Jaipur welcomes family members or friends as they could make a good match and donate a portion of their liver. The human liver regenerates faster and returns to its original size soon after the surgery, and this makes a living-donor liver transplant the best option rather than waiting for a deceased-donor liver to become available.
Manipal Hospitals is considered one of the renowned hospitals for liver transplants in Jaipur having a team of experts experienced in performing solid-organ transplantation and they also produce some of the best outcomes in the country.
Evaluation for Liver Transplant
A series of tests including blood and urine tests, imaging of the liver, such as an ultrasound and CT scan, heart tests (ECG, ECHO etc), psychological evaluation and general health examination to evaluate the overall health and to check for any other illnesses that may impact the success of the transplant.
Financial counselling to help the patient understand the cost of a transplant and post-transplant care.
Once these tests and consultations are completed, the transplant centre's selection committee meets to discuss. The committee determines whether a liver transplant is the best treatment for the patient and whether the patient is healthy enough to undergo a transplant.
Tests will be conducted on willing donors to look for compatibility. Once a suitable donor has obtained a part of the liver from the donor is removed and implanted into the recipient. The liver of both will grow back to its regular size in a few weeks.
A donor is brain dead and his heart is still beating, but they’re legally dead because their brain has stopped working permanently. The donor is usually present in an intensive-care unit.
During The Day of the Transplant
Liver transplants usually take 8 to 12 hours. The surgery for both the recipient and donor will take place simultaneously. The surgeons will take out the diseased liver and replace it with the donor's liver. The recipient may require several units of blood and blood products during and after the procedure. Since the transplant is a major procedure, the surgeons will have to put several tubes in the recipient's body. These tubes are necessary to help the body do certain things during the operation and for a few days afterwards. Immediately after the procedure both recipient and donor will be shifted to the intensive care unit. Get the best liver transplant at the finest multispeciality hospital in Jaipur.
After a liver transplant
The patient has to stay in the intensive care unit for a few days followed by an additional 5 to 10 days in the hospital. The transplant team designs a checkup schedule. The patient would have to undergo blood tests a few times each week at first and then less often over time.
The patient requires a number of medications after the liver transplant, some of them for the rest of the life. These drugs include immunosuppressants, to keep the immune system from attacking the new liver. Other drugs help reduce the risk of other complications after the transplant. It will normally take six months to feel fully recovered after the transplant. The patient may be able to resume normal activities or go back to work a few months after surgery.
Hepato-Pancreatic Biliary Surgery
Hepato-Pancreato Biliary Surgery removes tumours from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.
The liver transplant doctors in Jaipur at Manipal Hospitals use a minimally invasive or open approach. The minimally invasive approach involves inserting a laparoscope into the abdomen and removing the tumour through small incisions. Open Hepato-Pancreato Biliary Surgery involves making one large incision in the abdomen to remove the tumour.
How Does Liver Transplant Work?
A living donor donates part of their healthy liver to someone with severe disease or injury affecting their liver tissue. A split-liver donation involves two simultaneous surgeries: one to remove half the patient's diseased or injured liver and one to insert half an organ from another person into their body so that both parts can work together to perform all necessary functions for good health.
The recipients' immune system often rejects transplanted livers within a few months after surgery due to differences between donors' and recipients' tissue types. However, some people may have more extended periods without rejection than others depending on their medical history and other factors such as age.
Intra Operative Ultrasound
Intra Operative Ultrasound (IOUS) uses high-frequency sound waves to diagnose and assist in liver surgery. The waves transmit through the skin and into the body, reflected by structures in the body. Computers store these reflections as an image.
The ultrasound probe is used in liver surgery to help surgeons locate blood vessels and tumours, determine if there are any complications with the patient's anatomy and ensure tissue removal during surgery.
Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)
Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) uses X-Rays to take multiple images, which are combined to create a detailed picture. MDCT is often used to diagnose liver surgery because it can penetrate thick tissues and provide excellent details helpful in the diagnosis of liver cancer, liver disease, gallstones, and Cirrhosis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) diagnoses various conditions and diseases by producing images of the body's internal structures, including soft tissues like muscles and ligaments and hard tissues like bones and cartilage.
MRI helps in liver surgery as it allows surgeons to see affected areas caused during the operation and other problems that may require additional treatment.
Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT)
PET-CT injects a radioactive compound into the bloodstream, circling throughout the body. A special camera then detects radiation that the organs have absorbed and displays it as an image.
PET-CT evaluates liver cancer and other conditions that affect the liver, such as Hepatitis and Cirrhosis. It can also detect tumours in other body areas that have metastasised to the liver.
Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary surgery removes pancreatic or liver tumours. It is a type of liver surgery which involves removing the tumour and surrounding tissue using special surgical instruments and techniques. The surgeon then closes the incision with stitches or staples.
A surgeon may treat a patient with a diseased or injured pancreas using Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary surgery.
Living Donor Liver Transplant
A living donor liver transplant removes a healthy portion of a patient's liver and transplants it into a recipient with liver failure.
The process begins with the donor's evaluation to ensure they are healthy enough to undergo surgery and can provide the desired amount of liver tissue. The donor's blood type test ensures compatibility with the recipient.
Cadaveric Transplantation harvests organs from a donor, who is often deceased, and transplanted into the body of a recipient. The most common cadaveric transplant procedures include liver, kidney, pancreas, and heart transplantation.
Cadaveric transplantation treats many conditions, including end-stage liver disease and cancerous tumours that have spread throughout the body.
Split Donation Liver Transplant
Split donation liver transplant donates part of the liver to another person, who then donates their part to another person. It is a way of helping multiple people with liver disease who might not be able to get a full-sized liver transplant from just one donor.
Split donation happens when a living donor cannot donate an entire liver due to blood type or size issues. The donor will donate part of their liver, and the recipient will donate theirs in return.
Combined Liver and Kidney Transplantation
Combined liver and kidney transplantation helps patients receive a new liver and kidneys. The main goal of combined liver and kidney transplantation is to improve the quality of life for end-stage liver disease patients who are not eligible for other treatments, such as dialysis or a liver transplant alone.
The first step in this procedure is removing the patient's diseased organs and determining if another patient can use them or not. The surgeon connects the new organs using sutures or staples.
Combined Liver and Pancreas Transplantation
Combined Liver and Pancreas Transplantation combines two standard transplant procedures, liver and pancreas, into one surgery allowing the patient to receive both organs at once rather than having to wait for each organ to be donated separately.
It uses laparoscopic surgery and removes the diseased liver, pancreas and gallbladder before inserting a healthy organ from a donor. The surgeon then connects blood vessels and ducts from the new liver to those of the patient so that they can begin working immediately.
Dual Lobe Transplantation
Dual lobe transplantation involves the removal of two lobes of a liver to transplant into two different patients. The procedure is most commonly used to treat liver damage by disease or injury, such as Cirrhosis, Hepatitis C, or Cancer.
As only half of an organ remains in each patient after dual lobe transplantation, they must take medications regularly to help prevent rejection of the new organs (which would lead to failure).
Swap transplantation involves moving a liver from one person to another.
It removes one person's liver while simultaneously performing surgery on the donor to remove their liver as well. The organs undergo perfusion, which cleanses them and prepares them for ice preservation until the transplant.
ABO-incompatible transplant allows a person to receive a liver from a donor whose blood type differs from their own. This type of transplant treats end-stage liver disease and other conditions that cause the liver to fail.
Doctors need a donor who has the same blood type as the recipient. The donor and recipient do not necessarily have to be related. If an ABO-compatible donor is unavailable, an ABO-incompatible transplant is an option.
After an ABO-incompatible transplant, recipients must take medications that prevent rejection for the rest of their lives.
Domino Liver Transplant
Domino Liver Transplant treats people with liver failure. The patient's healthy liver is removed from their body and transplanted into another person during the procedure.
The process begins when an individual's liver fails to function correctly due to an infection, auto-immune disease, or cancer. Surgeons remove the old liver and implant the new one.
The Whipple procedure treats pancreatic cancer and other diseases that affect the pancreas. It involves removing part or all of the pancreas, parts of the stomach and duodenum, and parts of other organs in the digestive tract. This procedure aims to remove as much cancerous tissue as possible without compromising normal organ function.
Portosystemic Shunt Procedures
Portosystemic shunt procedures correct blood flow from the liver to the stomach and intestines. The blood bypasses the liver, which can cause damage to the organ and lead to other health problems, including Cirrhosis and liver failure.
During a portosystemic shunt procedure, surgeons remove an abnormal connection between the portal vein and another vein or artery (such as the inferior vena cava or hepatic artery). They then create an alternate route for blood to flow from the portal vein directly into the heart via a new vessel.
Oesophagal surgery treats oesophageal cancer, starting in the cells lining the oesophagus. The oesophagus tube connects and allows food to move from the mouth to the stomach.
Oesophagal surgery can be done through an open incision or laparoscopically. In either case, the surgeon removes a portion of the oesophagus and then attaches the remaining healthy tissue with staples or stitches.
Colorectal surgery treats diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus. In this procedure, portions of the large intestine are removed or bypassed.
Colorectal surgery uses a laparoscope inserted through a small incision in the abdomen. The camera allows the surgeon to see inside the body during surgery to remove diseased tissue while preserving healthy tissue as much as possible.
Rectal and Anal Canal Surgery
Rectal and Anal Canal surgery removes cancerous growths from the rectum or anus using an incision in the affected area and removing the tumour.
Surgeons use special instruments to remove growths from the rectum, colon, or anus area.
The liver is one of the most complex organs playing an important role in the quality of life. Liver transplantation restores a better quality of life and helps patients in living healthy. Some of the reasons why a transplant would be needed are:
Acute liver failure
Cirrhosis, Hepatitis (viral, autoimmune and idiopathic)
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
If you are looking for a liver transplant in Jaipur then consult Manipal Hospitals Jaipur, our liver transplant doctors and surgeons are there to cater to the most critical liver-related concerns.
Manipal Hospitals offers the most trusted liver transplant surgery in Jaipur. Our facilities are of international benchmark and include:
Cavitron Ultrasonic Aspirator and dissector (CUSA)
Argon Plasma Coagulator (APC)
Cavitron Ultrasonic Aspirator and Dissector (CUSA) for Parenchymal Transaction
Argon Plasma Coagulator (APC)
Liver Transplantation in Children
Surgery for Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO)
Surgery for Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF)
Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA)
Transarterial Chemoembolisation (TACE)
Robotic Donor Surgery
Cosmetic Donor Surgery
Portosystemic Shunt Procedures
Surgery for Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction (EHPVO)
Surgery for Non-Cirrhotic Portal Fibrosis (NCPF)
Non-liver Surgeries in Patients with Portal Hypertension
Complex Liver Resection
Children with severe liver problems undergo liver transplants
Liver transplants treat conditions like Biliary Atresia, a rare and life-threatening congenital disability that affects the liver and bile ducts.
At Manipal Hospitals, our liver transplant surgeons in Jaipur are known for successful liver surgeries for children.
When there is no matching donor, the patient's condition will worsen. They will likely develop liver failure, which can be fatal. The patient may also require dialysis, a treatment that uses a machine to filter waste products from the blood.
The ABO-incompatible transplant also helps patients to receive a liver from a donor whose blood type differs from their own.
Consult the best liver transplant surgeons in Jaipur at Manipal Hospitals for liver disease treatment.
Living liver donors can have complications, but the liver regrows quickly.
The most common complication of living liver donation is a reaction to anaesthesia which is usually mild and does not affect the donor's long-term health. Other potential complications include infection, bleeding, and bile duct injury.
The liver transplant doctors in Jaipur ensure proper diagnosis for donors to heal quickly and live everyday life.
Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis A and E are typically transmitted through contaminated food or water, whereas hepatitis B and C are through blood-to-blood contact.
Hepatitis A is usually mild, with symptoms lasting several weeks to several months. The best way to prevent it is by practising good hygiene while travelling.
Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccinating against it and avoiding activities that risk exposure to blood from others, such as sharing needles for drugs or tattoos. Avoiding these activities also helps in the prevention of Hepatitis C.