What is Cancer?
Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body. There are two main types of cancer: malignant (cancerous) and benign (non-cancerous). In healthy people, cells grow and die at a relatively constant rate. If there is too much cell growth or not enough cell death, it can lead to the formation of a tumour. When a tumour metastasis (has spread to another part of the body), it becomes malignant.
Benign tumours are localised and do not spread, while cancerous tumours can spread via the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
Manipal Hospitals has the best cancer specialist in Jaipur along with the availability of other experts in allied specialities such as cardiology, and neurology under a single roof. This helps us provide comprehensive care to patients in complicated scenarios. We have helped patients with many cancer treatments:
A core biopsy is a medical procedure in which a tissue sample from the body goes for investigation. A hollow needle into the patient's body takes the sample or a device that uses suction to pull out the tissue and then cuts it into sections for analysis.
Core biopsies determine whether there are abnormal cells in tissues and organs and whether they may be cancerous. Core biopsies can also help doctors determine if there is inflammation or infection in a specific area of the body.
A colposcopy uses a magnifying device to examine the cervix, vagina, and vulva for abnormalities. It diagnoses cervical cancer and pre-cancerous conditions of the cervix, including human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (genital warts).
The doctor opens the vagina using a speculum and applies acetic acid or iodine to the cervix to make abnormal areas more visible. The doctor then uses a colposcope—a special microscope—to look at these areas more closely.
A mammogram is a breast X-ray that can help detect breast cancer.
During a mammogram, the patient lies down on an X-ray table, and the technologist takes the X-rays from several different angles. The technologist may ask her to breathe normally or hold her breath for a brief period during the procedure.
Afterwards, the technologist may apply pressure with gauze pads to help remove any fluid from between layers of skin.
Visit the Best Cancer Hospital in Jaipur to get the finest cancer care treatment with the top cancer care doctors in Jaipur.
Immunotherapy is a form of cancer treatment that aims to harness the immune system's power to fight off cancer cells. It does this by training the body's T-cells to recognise and attack malignant cells and introducing new immune cells that can target cancer cells directly.
It is one of the most promising treatments for cancers like melanoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer, and kidney cancer.
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs are cytotoxic agents as they destroy cells. The word "chemotherapy" literally means "to use chemicals to treat disease."
Chemotherapy treats cancer in different ways- before surgery or radiation therapy, or after surgery and radiation therapy- to reduce the chance that cancer will come back (recur). Chemotherapy also helps if someone has a particular type of cancer that has not gotten better after trying other treatments.
- Intra Cavitary Chemotherapy
Intra Cavitary Chemotherapy uses drugs that are injected directly into the body cavity. The most common form of this treatment is intraperitoneal chemotherapy, which treats cancer that has spread to the abdominal cavity.
Intra-cavity chemotherapy can be used as a single treatment or combined with other treatments such as radiation therapy or surgery.
Targeted cancer therapy is a way of treating cancer that uses drugs, antibodies, or other substances to kill a specific type of cancer cell. It targets the particular mutation that causes cancer, such as a genetic defect or chromosomal abnormality. Visit our top multispecialty hospital in Jaipur for treatment.
Targeted cancer therapy can treat alone or in combination with other treatments.
Biological cancer therapy is a treatment that uses the body's natural immune system to destroy cancer cells. Biological therapy helps patients with solid tumours and blood cancers, such as leukaemia and lymphoma.
Biological cancer therapy works by introducing new treatments into the patient's body that help the immune system recognise and destroy tumour cells. Vaccines, antibodies, and gene therapies are common forms of Biological therapy.
A bone marrow transplant uses stem cells to replace damaged or diseased bone marrow. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells.
Bone marrow transplants treat certain cancers and blood disorders. They can be autologous, in which your own donated stem cells are used, or allogeneic, in which you receive donor stem cells from another person.
The procedure uses a high dose of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill off diseased or damaged cells in your body. Then, healthy stem cells from a donor's umbilical cord blood, peripheral blood (blood taken from veins), or bone marrow go into your bloodstream through an IV. The healthy stem cells travel through your body and begin to produce new healthy blood cells in your bone marrow.
PICC, Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy. A peripherally inserted central catheter is a pipe inserted into a vein in the arm or hand. It gives medicine and fluids or takes blood samples. A PICC is one of the most popular ways to provide intravenous (IV) medication or fluids. It is also called a "tunnelled catheter."
A PICC can stay for weeks, allowing you to avoid repeated trips to the hospital or clinic for treatment. The PICC line is also a port for chemotherapy treatments and blood transfusions. After removal of the PICC line, bone marrow aspiration extracts a minuscule amount of this tissue for examination.
Robotic-assisted surgery is a form of surgery that utilises a robot to assist in the removal of cancerous tissue. The robot is programmed to move in exact ways and perform tasks that would otherwise be impossible for humans to do. Robotic-assisted surgery allows surgeons to operate with greater precision than ever before, which may lead to better patient outcomes.
- Central Line and Chemo Port
A central line catheter is a long, flexible tube inserted into a vein in the neck, chest or groin area and threaded to the heart. The catheter injects fluids, blood, and medicine directly into the heart muscle and administers chemotherapy, blood transfusions and other medication. It can also monitor blood pressure and oxygen levels.
A chemo port is a small catheter put under the skin, usually in the chest area, to provide a direct line for chemotherapy. The port allows continuous access to the bloodstream so that chemotherapy can be given continuously for four weeks. Visit Manipal Hospitals and consult with the doctors.
Palliative cancer care is a way of treating cancer that focuses on improving a patient's quality of life rather than simply extending their life. The goal is to improve the patient's well-being by helping them manage their symptoms and side effects, including pain and fatigue while supporting family members.
It's important to note that palliative care isn't just for those dying: it can help at any stage of the disease.
Child Life Cancer Care is a program that helps children and young adults who are dealing with cancer or have recently completed treatment. It aims to help them cope with their illness, interact with other kids going through the same thing, and have fun.
Play therapy uses child's play to help them process emotional and behavioural issues. The therapist will use play materials, toys, or games to help the child express their feelings, gain insight into their problems, or learn new behaviours.
Play therapy care is a particular therapy that uses play materials and games to help children cope with the stress and anxiety caused by cancer and its treatment.
Cancer counselling is a service that provides emotional support for patients and their families. Cancer counsellors help patients deal with the stress and anxiety associated with a cancer diagnosis and help them cope with treatment side effects.
Cancer counselling can benefit people receiving treatment for the first time or who have been through multiple rounds of treatment without success. It can also help anyone with a recurrence of their cancer.
- Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy
Stereotactic body radiotherapy or SBRT delivers high doses of radiation directly to the tumour with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissue. It treats lung cancer, other cancer types, and even benign tumours.
SBRT uses a linear accelerator—a machine that uses X-rays to generate high-energy photons that destroy cancer cells. The device has a computer-controlled "beam" that can be moved around in three dimensions and aimed at different areas in the body.
- Stereotactic Radio Surgery
Stereotactic radiosurgery uses a computer to map the tumour's shape and guide a precisely targeted beam of radiation to destroy it. The computer also calculates how much radiation to use, how long to apply it, and where best to aim it.
The procedure works on any area of the body where tumours are located, including the brain, spinal cord and chest cavity.
- Electrons for Superficial Tumors
Electrons for Superficial Tumors (ESST) use electrons to kill cancer cells. It's most commonly used to treat superficial tumours on the skin and internal tumours such as those in the lungs and colon.
A surgeon inserts a small metal called an applicator into the tumour through a needle. This applicator delivers electrons from an electron gun placed just outside the skin. The electrons are attracted to the cancer cells' nuclei and cause them to die. This process is called electrosurgery or electrochemotherapy.
3D-CRT is three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, a form of radiotherapy used to treat cancer. It is a non-invasive treatment that uses photons to eliminate cancer cells.
The process involves two different types of radiation: photons and electrons. The photons from the machine reach the tumour. The electrons accelerated from an outside source meet the photons in their trajectory, creating an impact that destroys the cell.
- 2D-Palliative radiotherapy
2D-palliative radiotherapy targets only the affected area and nearby tissues to reduce pain, shrink tumours, or destroy cancer cells.
2D-palliative radiotherapy works with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be the primary treatment for certain types of cancer, such as prostate and lung cancer.
- Active Breath Hold Controller
Active Breath Hold Controller (ABC) is a non-invasive cancer treatment that uses computer technology to help patients breathe. ABC Cancer Treatment uses a small mask connected to a computerised device that monitors the patient's breathing and then adjusts the mask's pressure based on what it detects. Allows patients to control their cancer treatment program by adjusting their breath hold time to administer a higher radiation dose.
- Smart Arc and Dynamic Treatment
Smart arc and dynamic cancer treatment use radio frequency waves to destroy cancer cells. An arc of electricity to the area of the body with the tumour causes a reaction in the cells, which kills them.
This method is similar to other forms of radiation therapy, but it differs in that it's faster, more precise, and more effective. Typically, radiation therapy can take up to several days because doctors need to adjust their settings daily until they get the correct dose for each patient. With smart arc and dynamic cancer treatment, doctors can deliver just the right amount of energy at once without having to make adjustments over time. Book an appointment to know more about the treatment procedure.
Brachytherapy uses high doses of radiation delivered directly to the tumour, with lower doses given to the surrounding healthy tissue. Brachytherapy is an alternative to surgery or external beam radiotherapy for some cancers, like prostate and cervical cancer.
The radiation comes from a small radioactive source implanted inside or around the tumour.
Elekta Precise and Elekta Infinity are two systems that use the Gamma med brachytherapy system to treat cancer. The Gamma med brachytherapy system is a machine that delivers radiation in a precise way to target specific body parts.
The Elekta Precise system treats cancers in the head and neck area, while the Elekta Infinity system treats cancers in other parts of the body.
- Image Guided Brachytherapy
Image-guided brachytherapy is a radiation treatment that uses a computer to monitor the tumour and surrounding tissue, administering just enough radiation to kill cancer while sparing healthy tissue.
Image-guided brachytherapy treats cancers in areas that are hard to reach with traditional radiation or surgery. The treatment can be used on its own or in conjunction with other treatments such as chemotherapy or surgery.
- Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy
Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) is a type of radiation therapy that uses advanced computer-controlled machines to deliver more precise radiation doses to cancerous tissue, minimising damage to healthy cells.
The treatment happens via a linear accelerator, a machine that uses high-energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells. The device changes the intensity of the x-ray beam as it moves through the body so that it can focus on a specific area and spare surrounding tissues.
- Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy
Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy, or VMAT, uses protons rather than x-rays to treat cancer. It's also known as proton beam therapy.
A series of protons fire at a tumour from different angles while calculating the radiation dose based on how much each angle is covered. VMAT offers more accurate treatment of tumours while minimising damage to surrounding healthy tissue.
Interstitial implants are medical devices used for treating cancer. They are inserted into the body to deliver medication directly to a tumour. The implants made of biodegradable material are placed in the body and then dissolved over time.
Interstitial implants treat cancerous tumours of the breast, lung, prostate, and other areas of the body. They also deliver chemotherapy drugs to treat different types of cancer that haven't spread beyond their original location.
- Intra Cavitary Radiotherapy
Intra Cavitary Radiotherapy is a treatment that uses high-energy beams of radiation to kill cancer cells while minimising damage to healthy tissue. It works with other treatments like surgery, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.
Intra Cavitary Radiotherapy can be used to treat cancers that have spread throughout the body, such as lung or breast cancer or tumours located in areas where surgery isn't possible, such as in the brain.
Radio Guided Surgery uses a signal emitted by an electronic device placed in the patient's body to guide the surgeon to a specific location. This technique helps direct surgeons to precise areas inside the body during minimally invasive surgery and helps reduce incorrect placement of implants and other medical devices.
Breast reconstruction is a procedure to rebuild the breast after a mastectomy. It involves using tissue from another body part, such as fat or muscle, to create a new breast. Breast reconstruction happens along with mastectomy or later.
Breast reconstruction can help feel more natural and comfortable in the body after a mastectomy due to cancer. It helps to avoid having scars on your chest from the surgery.
- Breast Oncoplastic Procedures
Breast oncoplastic treats breast cancer. It is also known as oncoplastic breast reconstruction. Breast oncoplastic aims to restore the shape and appearance of the breast after it has been affected by cancer treatment.
During a breast oncoplastic procedure, surgeons use tissue from other body parts to rebuild or reshape the breast. This tissue can come from anywhere on your body, including fat, muscle, skin and blood vessels.
- Breast Conservative Surgery
Breast conservative surgery is a procedure that removes the breast tissue itself and leaves the breast skin and muscle intact. A woman with a tumour in her breast may preserve her ability to breastfeed.
It's important to note that conservative breast surgery doesn't always require removing all of the tissue in the breast. A breast cancer doctor in Jaipur may be able to remove just enough tissue for the patient's comfort level while still preserving her ability to breastfeed.
Voice prosthesis surgery is the process of replacing the larynx, or vocal cords, in a patient who has lost their ability to speak. This surgery helps patients with cancer, trauma, or other conditions that can cause them to lose their voice. The prosthesis allows the patient to breathe normally and produce sound when it vibrates against a stoma (opening) in the neck.
- Musculoskeletal Treatment
Musculoskeletal cancers are those cancers that affect the tissues of the bones and muscles. The term musculoskeletal includes tumours that arise from muscle, bone, cartilage, and other connective tissues in the body. These cancers may be primary or secondary. Primary cancers are those that originate in the tissue where they develop. Secondary cancers occur when a tumour from another body part spreads to a new location.
The treatment depends on the cancer type and its stage at diagnosis.
- Microvascular Reconstruction
Microvascular reconstruction (MVR) is a surgical procedure that uses tiny blood vessels to replace larger ones. It treats various diseases, including cancer and diabetes.
The surgeon makes small incisions in the patient's skin to insert blood vessel fragments into the body's larger blood vessels to reconnect with the patient's existing arteries and veins.
- Robotic Surgery for Gynaecological Cases
Robotic surgery for gynaecological cancer cases is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that uses a robot to operate. A surgeon controls the robot and manipulates surgical instruments through small incisions in the abdomen or pelvis.
Robotic surgery treats all types of gynaecological cancers, including ovarian, endometrial, cervical, and vaginal cancer. It also removes benign tumours such as fibroids and polyps.
- Robotic GI Cancer Surgeries
Robotic GI Cancer Surgeries are surgeries that use robotic technology to aid doctors in performing minimally invasive surgery. The procedure involves a robotically controlled surgical tool inserted through the patient's mouth and stomach to remove tumours, lesions, or other abnormalities from the digestive tract.
The surgery allows for a shorter recovery time and smaller incisions than traditional open surgeries do. It also has better cosmetic outcomes than conventional surgery, so patients can often return to work and normal activities sooner than they would have after open procedures.