Glaucoma- Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

glaucoma treatment in Delhi

What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is an eye disorder that affects the optic nerve (a nerve that is responsible for carrying visual information from your eyes to your brain). In most cases, the reason for glaucoma is due to increase pressure inside the eye.

What are the types of glaucoma? 

Open-angle glaucoma: Characterized by gradual loss of vision.

Angle-closure glaucoma: Considered a medical emergency with symptoms such as severe eye pain, blurry vision, eye redness, and nausea.

Congenital glaucoma: Seen at childbirth with symptoms such as excessive tearing, cloudy eyes, and light sensitivity.

Secondary glaucoma: Occurs as a result of an injury or another eye disorder such as a tumor or cataract. Medications such as corticosteroids may also lead to glaucoma.

Normal-tension glaucoma: A condition where the optic nerve is damaged without increased pressure of the eye. The cause is unknown but some factors may contribute to it such as insufficient blood flow to your optic nerve.

What are the causes?

The main glaucoma cause is increased pressure in the eye. This increased pressure causes damage to your optic nerve inside your eye.

The cause of pressure increasing in your eye is unknown but some factors may contribute to it such as:

  • Increased blood pressure

  • Insufficient blood flow to your optic nerve

  • Restricted drainage in your eye

  • Some medications such as corticosteroids

  • Eye drops that cause dilation

 What are the glaucoma symptoms?

Generally, glaucoma symptoms are classified into two class:

  1. Primary open-angle glaucoma symptoms:

  • The only symptom is gradual vision loss.

  1. Acute angle-closure glaucoma symptoms: It is a medical emergency with the following symptoms:

  • Severe eye pain

  • Eye redness

  • Blurry vision

  • Sudden vision disturbance

  • Seeing colored rings around lights

  • Nausea and vomiting

One should consult the best glaucoma doctor in Delhi, India if he or she develops the glaucoma sign or symptoms associated with glaucoma disorder, in particular, if they have.

How is glaucoma diagnosed?

Your doctor will take a full medical history and he/she will perform some eye tests such as:

  • Perimetry test: also known as visual field test; to check your vision from the side and central

  • Tonometry test: to check the pressure inside your eye

  • Pachymetry test: to check your cornea

  • Monitor your optic nerve: your doctor may take pictures of your optic nerve over time and compare it

Looking for glaucoma treatment in Delhi, then contact Manipal Hospital Delhi, and talk to the best glaucoma doctor in Delhi.

What is the treatment?

The initial treatment will prescription eye drops. This will help to reduce eye pressure by reducing the amount of fluid produced by the eye or by increasing its drainage from the eyes. 

If it is not sufficient, then your doctor may recommend the following:

1. Oral Medications

2. Surgery

  • Laser surgery: It is done in open-angle glaucoma and involves opening the clogged channels for better fluid drainage inside the eyes using a laser beam. 

  • Filtering surgery: In this procedure, a portion of the eye known as trabecular meshwork is removed to improve fluid drainage.

  • Drainage tubes: In this procedure, a small tube shunt is inserted to improve fluid drainage.

  • Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS): They are less risky and associated with fewer complications. They can be done along with cataract surgery. 

Frequently Asked Questions:

1. What are the risk factors?

Some risk factors include over age 60 years old, family history, African ethnicity, pre-existing medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, medicines such as corticosteroids, and chronic eye problems.

2. Is glaucoma preventable?

Glaucoma cannot be prevented. You must have an annual eye checkup.

3. Is it possible to become blind with glaucoma?

If your increased eye pressure is controlled, vision loss can be slowed or prevented. But vision loss due to glaucoma cannot be returned.

4. Can glaucoma be cured?

Glaucoma cannot be cured. It is possible to slow or prevent vision loss with the help of medications and surgical treatment.

5. If I am diagnosed with glaucoma, how often should I go for an eye check-up?

Once you are diagnosed with glaucoma, the visual field tests should be done one to two times a year. Do not miss to visit the best eye hospital in Dwarka, Delhi for the follow-up check-up. 


 

 Dr. Vanuli Bajpai 

Consultant - Ophthalmology
Manipal Hospitals, Dwarka, Delhi

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