Glaucoma- Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Dr. Vanuli Bajpai
Feb 19, 2021
As one of the most specialized ocular health practices in India, the Department of Ophthalmology at Manipal Hospitals provides patients with access to expert diagnostics and care that includes interventional procedures and surgery.
The Department of Ophthalmology at Manipal Hospitals is the best eye hospital in Delhi, founded in the year 2018 and is managed by Goyal Eye Institute, Patel Nagar. Some eye diseases require specialist consults and technology that are available at our Patel Nagar Center. We can plan hassle-free referrals for this. Once the required consultation, diagnostic test or procedure is completed, we continue your follow-up monitoring at Manipal Hospital, Delhi.
Equipped with the robust infrastructure, with over 30 years of expertise and over 4000 happy and satisfied patients, Manipal Hospitals, Delhi ensures that your eyes are treated with multi-disciplinary care.
We have the best eye doctor in Delhi who are expert in performing cataract surgery using the latest technology. To date, we have performed more than 100 surgeries with over 99% satisfaction rate.
We are the best specs removal clinic in Delhi for the last 30 years. Your specs removal procedure done at our Patel Nagar centre requires you to visit us only once. All follow-ups can be done at Manipal Hospital, Delhi.
Our eye specialists in Delhi regularly screen your eye for glaucoma on every visit; for early detection and treatment. Complex glaucoma cases can be managed at our glaucoma clinic in Patel Nagar. Monitoring and follow-ups can be done at Manipal Hospital, Delhi.
Our entire team of retina care is trained at Sankara Netralaya, Chennai to ensure that your retina is in good hands. From early diabetic changes to complex retinal detachments, our dedicated retina team has you covered.
All complicated cases of corneal diseases are managed by our specialists well trained at LV Prasad Eye Institute.
Good oculoplasty services require both expertise and infrastructure. At Manipal, with the combination of neurosurgery and oculoplasty specialists, we perform complex orbital and facial aesthetic procedures with a multidisciplinary approach.
We also specialize in treating various paediatric eye problems.
Commonly found in older people, a cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye that can cause blurry vision, faded colour and night blindness. Cataract surgery is a procedure done to remove the clouding and restore vision to normalcy. It is a fairly common procedure and is done with little to no complication in a majority of cases.
Healthy vision is important to lead a good quality life. Ophthalmology is a medical speciality which focuses on the care and management of diseases and disorders of the eye.
Comprehensive Eye Care: We offer complete eye screening for all eye diseases and the right prescription spectacles that suit your needs.
Cataract: A cataract is a dense cloudy layer that forms on the lens of the eyes causing blurred vision. Cataract surgery is performed to replace the cloudy lens with the artificial lens. Cataract surgery has the following advantages:
Micro-incision Cataract Surgery: Micro-incision cataract surgery is a minimally invasive procedure performed through a small incision of 1.8mm or less.
Toric Intraocular Lenses: The procedure involves the use of intraocular lenses to correct corneal astigmatism (blurred vision) in patients undergoing cataract surgery.
Multifocal Intraocular Lenses: The procedure improves the visual function. Post-surgery, patients can see comfortably far, intermediate and near distance without wearing spectacles.
Specs Removal: Surgical options to eliminate the use of specs or contact lens includes:
Contoura Vision: This procedure is US-FDA approved and safest of the specs removal procedures. Helpful in the removal of corneal irregularities enhances visual quality and sharpness.
Bladeless LASIK: Also known as all-laser LASIK (laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis), bladeless LASIK uses femtosecond laser instead of a blade. This procedure provides a sharper and clearer vision; the procedure is quick with faster recovery and is safe.
Implantable Collamer Lens: This is an artificial lens implanted permanently in the eye to treat near as well as farsightedness.
Glaucoma: Glaucoma is a degenerative disease in which abnormally high pressure in your eye damages the optic nerve (optic neuropathy) and may cause blindness. Regular screening for glaucoma helps in early detection and treatment. Some of the diagnostic procedures for screening and monitoring of glaucoma include:
Applanation Tonometry: This procedure involves the measurement of intraocular pressure (the measurement of fluid pressure in the eye).
Humphrey’s Visual Field: This procedure involves the measurement of the entire area of peripheral vision. Also helpful in diagnosing certain neurological conditions.
Optic Disc Photo: This procedure detects the structural damage to the optic nerve head.
Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of Optic Nerve: This procedure is a non-invasive imaging technique that involves the measurement of the thickness of layers of the retina.
Retina: Retina plays a vital role in sending neural signals to the brain for visual recognition. Regular screening of the retina is very important especially if you are diabetic.
Fundus screening: Images of the retina are captured by a digital fundus camera. These images help in understanding the characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (damage to the retina due to high blood glucose levels) such as a build-up of fluid in the macula (macular oedema) and microaneurysms (early changes of diabetic retinopathy).
Diabetic Retina screening: Specialised digital photography is used to document changes that could affect eyesight.
Intravitreal Injections: An intravitreal injection is administered into the vitreous (jelly-like fluid inside your eye). This procedure is used to treat eye problems.
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP): When retinal blood vessels in a premature infant develop abnormally, retinopathy of prematurity occurs. It may cause blindness if the severity of ROP is high causing detachment of the retina from the eyes.
Fluorescein Angiography and Retinal Photography*: Blood flow in the retina is documented using a special camera.
Optical Coherence Tomography: High-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina are documented using optical coherence tomography.
Retinal Reattachment Surgery: Options for retinal reattachment surgery are as follows.
Pneumatic Retinopexy: Air or gas bubbles are injected into the eye which pushes the retina towards the wall of the eye so that it attaches to the wall of the eye.
Scleral Buckling: Silicon material is sutured to the sclera (white of the eye). This procedure indents the surface of the eye.
Vitrectomy: After surgically removing the vitreous, space is filled with air, gas or silicone oil to flatten the retina.
Cornea: The disease of cornea causes foggy or blurry vision, scarring, distorted vision, and blindness.
PentaCam: The corneal surface is analysed using pentacam especially during refractive and cataract surgery.
Keratoconus treatments: Keratoconus which is a progressive eye disease causes thinning of the cornea and becomes irregular in shape. Besides blurred vision, it also causes progressive nearsightedness and irregular astigmatism. Treatment options for progressive keratoconus include:
Custom soft contact lenses
Gas permeable contact lenses
"Piggybacking" contact lenses
Hybrid contact lenses
Scleral and semi-scleral lenses
Topography-guided conductive keratoplasty
Corneal Transplants: Also known as penetrating keratoplasty, a corneal transplant is the only viable option in case of advanced keratoconus.
Corneal Stem Cell Transplants: Corneal stem cell transplantation is used in the management of the ocular surface disorder. A limbal graft from a donor cornea is implanted into the patient’s cornea.
Oculoplasty: Also known as ophthalmic plastic surgery, oculoplasty is done to improve the function and appearance of the eye and its surrounding structures.
Lacrimal Surgery: Also known as tear duct surgery, lacrimal surgery focuses on the reconstruction of the tear ducts system. Treatment option includes:
Tear duct bypass surgery
Tear duct bypass with implant
Punctal Stenosis and Stents
Facial Aesthetics: Facial aesthetics offer corrective procedures for:
Ptosis and Lid correction: Drooping of the eyelid is a common feature of ptosis which is corrected using an elastic strand of silicone.
Orbital Surgery: Orbital surgery focuses on the management of a variety of complications in the eye socket such as
Eye socket reconstruction
Thyroid eye disease
Asian double eyelid surgery
Thyroid eye disease: Thyroid eye disease involves the inflammation of the eye muscles, eyelids, fatty tissues behind the eye, etc.
Paediatric Eye Care: Children's eyes require special attention. Whether it be specs, squint or pediatric cataracts. Early detection and speciality care can make all the difference.
Paediatric Cataract Surgery: Similar to adult cataract surgery, in children the cataract surgery is performed through a small incision
Squint Correction Surgery: The muscle connected to the eye is surgically detached and repositioned so that the eyes see in the same direction.
Amblyopia Treatment: Amblyopia is a condition in which the brain and the eyes do not work in coordination. Treatment for amblyopia includes
Some of the diagnostic facilities Color vision test (Farnworth-Munsell 100 (FM-100) hue test) Visual field tests Computerized Optic Disc Imaging & Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis (GDX, HRT, OCT) - Electro-diagnostic testing - Corneal topography mapping - Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT) - Fluorescein angiography - Specular microscopy - Ocular ultrasound Surgical procedures performed - Cataract removal - Glaucoma surgery - Presbyopia reversal - Keratomileusis - Conductive keratoplasty - Radial keratotomy - Hexagonal keratotomy - LASEK (Laser assisted subepithelial keratomileusis) - LASIK (Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) - Laser thermal keratoplasty - Photorefractive keratectomy - Automated lamellar keratoplasty - Epikeratophakia - Contact lens implants - Anterior ciliary sclerotomy - Scleral reinforcement surgery (to slow down degenerative myopia)
The ophthalmologist performs a routine inspection to judge the current state of your vision. After a series of tests, your vision score is determined and if there are any ocular disorders, they are diagnosed and the impairment is measured. Minor impairment is usually corrected with spectacles and contact lenses but in some cases, the ophthalmologist may prescribe medication or a procedure.
Diabetic retinopathy is caused by high blood glucose or sugar levels. Hyperglycaemia or chronic high blood glucose levels damage the retinal blood vessels and may cause hemorrhages, or swelling of the retina. To know more visit the best ophthalmology hospital in Delhi.
Some common risks are:
Age (older people are more likely to have impaired vision)
Genetic predisposition (family history of color blindness, night blindness and other. disorders)
Excess UV exposure
To get rid of these, arrive at the best eyecare hospital in Delhi.
Although the process of retinal detachment is painless there are some warning signs to watch out:
Blurry or cloudy vision
The appearance of light flashes in one or both eyes.
The appearance of specks or floaters passing through your vision
If you notice any of the signs, reach out to the ophthalmology hospital in Delhi.
● Blurry/hazy vision ● Recurring eye pain ● Rainbows or halos appearing around lights ● Difficulty seeing near or far ● Difficulty in color recognition ● Sensitivity to light ● Severe itching
The possible causes of cataracts in children include:
Genetically inherited from parents
Genetic conditions. Eg. Down’s syndrome
Infections in the mother during pregnancy. E.g, Chickenpox, rubella
Get the best treatment at the eyecare hospital in Delhi.
In most cases, eye disease affects older people and those with a hereditary risk of eye disease. In those cases, it is difficult to prevent eye disease. Aside from these factors, maintaining a good diet and protecting your eyes from harm (UV rays, accidents, etc.) can prevent a lot of eye problems.
Yes, a yearly eye checkup helps you keep track of the health of your eyes and also allows your doctor to detect any problems that are developing in your vision.
The cornea for the transplant is mostly used from a deceased donor, particularly those who have pledged their eye for donation. Cornea for transplant cannot be used from a donor with prior surgery or has some conditions of the central nervous system or infection. To know more, arrive at the top ophthalmology hospital in Delhi.
Fortunately, most of the eye surgeries are not painful. Your eyes will be numb with the help of numbing eye drops or injections. You may feel little pressure but no pain during the procedure.
Manipal Hospitals is committed to offering quality, personalized care to its over a long-term relationship that is beneficial to its patients. The advanced technology and expert staff in the Ophthalmology department are a testament to this.
Reach out to us to learn more about maintaining healthy vision and book an appointment with one of our ophthalmology specialists today.