Endoscopic ultrasound or Endoscopic ultrasonography is a minimally invasive procedure performed by highly trained endoscopists, who look for abnormalities in the digestive tract with the help of an endoscope. An endoscopy is a long, slender tube that can be inserted via natural openings of our body including the rectum, mouth, etc., to view the internal organs in detail. The procedure also uses an ultrasound probe to get detailed images of the internal organs and other structures. During the endoscopic ultrasound, the inner lining of your oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, walls of the gastrointestinal tract and nearby organs like liver, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts, lymph nodes, etc. can be inspected. The procedure is used to assess various medical conditions including Mediastinal Lymph nodes, bile duct and pancreatic cancer, pancreatic cysts, stones, chronic pancreatitis, etc.
Why is it done?
Endoscopic ultrasound is often used to assess or evaluate:
The layers of the gastrointestinal tract.
Precancerous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract.
The cause of pain in the chest or abdomen.
The spread or extent of disease in the digestive tract and the lungs.
Abnormalities like lumps or lesions based on the findings of a CT scan or MRI.
Detailed images of the abnormalities and determine its cause and treatment plan.
Cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.
Cancer of the lungs, pancreas, liver, etc.
Staging of GI and Biliopancreatic cancers.
Metastasis or spread of cancer to the digestive and respiratory systems, or the nearby lymph nodes and vital structures.
Penetration of cancer in the deeper layers of the gastrointestinal tract, oesophagus, etc.
Diseases of the bile duct, pancreas, gallbladder, etc.
Inflammation of the pancreas, Pancreatic Pseudocyst treatment.
The success of the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.
The treatment plan for a disease or cancer using a needle biopsy.
Gallbladder stones or kidney stones.
The fluid samples collected from the abdomen and lungs.
Interventional EUS for Bile duct SEMS (Metal Stent) and Gastro-Enterostomy (GE).
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Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) or Fine Needle Biopsy (FNB): During the endoscopic ultrasound procedure, if suspicious growth or any other abnormalities are detected, tissue samples of such abnormalities are taken which is further examined microscopically to determine if they are cancerous or not.
The procedure is safe and effective when performed by highly trained and experienced endoscopists. The risks are rarely encountered and if you experience any of the following, contact your doctor immediately:
The procedure uses sedation or general anaesthesia which may cause some heart and pulmonary complications.
Abdominal pain, fever, shortness of breath, etc.
The endoscope can cause bleeding and perforation (tearing) in the gastrointestinal tract or oesophagus.
Biopsies, which is a procedure for extracting a tissue sample using a needle, of the pancreas can cause tearing, infection, bleeding, or acute inflammation.
How to prepare?
Follow all the instructions given by your doctor. Before the procedure, notify your doctor, all kinds of medications and supplements you are taking. You may be asked to stop a few medications prior to the procedure as they may interfere with the blood clotting process, healing, or recovery.
Let your doctor know if you are suffering from any underlying medical conditions such as heart diseases, lung problems, hypertension, diabetes, etc.
About one week before the procedure, you may be advised to stop your anticoagulant or blood-thinning medications, so that loss of blood due to an injury can be prevented.
Approximately 8 hours before the procedure, avoid eating or drinking anything.
If the procedure involves inserting the endoscopy in the rectal area, you may be given an enema or a laxative to clear your bowels before the procedure.
Make arrangements for someone to drive you home after the procedure if sedation or anaesthesia is being administered.
What can you expect?
The endoscopy procedure will take place in an endoscopy unit, which is an area entirely dedicated to endoscopy procedures.
During the procedure, you will usually be placed on your left side and sedatives are administered intravenously. Sometimes anaesthesia may be sprayed in your throat before inserting the endoscope to examine your upper gastrointestinal tract. A plastic mouth guard may be placed inside your mouth to protect the endoscope from accidental biting.
Your vitals will be constantly monitored throughout the procedure. To monitor your vitals, you will be connected to an electrocardiogram that checks your heart rate, a blood pressure cuff is placed on your arm to check your blood pressure and a pulse oximeter on your finger to monitor your oxygen saturation levels. You will also be given oxygen throughout the procedure.
You may be asked to swallow the initial part of the endoscope, which is very thin and easy to swallow. Then the endoscope is gently pushed into your stomach and duodenum through the oesophagus. Through a camera fitted at the tip of the endoscopy, the inner lining of the oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, etc., are inspected for abnormalities like lumps, suspicious growths, inflammation, etc. The stomach may be filled with air for better visibility, and this may give you a bloated feeling. The ultrasound probe will take detailed images of the internal organs. Multiple biopsy samples can also be taken that will be tested microscopically for the presence of cancer cells.
The process is painless and may make you a bit uncomfortable and the procedure may last for about 45 minutes. After the procedure, you will be shifted to the recovery room until you gain consciousness. You may be sent home after resting for a couple of hours. Make sure you have somebody from your family or friends drive you home safely. You may return to your normal activities after 24 hours of the procedure. Post-procedure, you may feel that your throat is sore, tired, and sleepy which is normal. The results are expected after a few days which will be sent to your doctor, who will interpret them for you in the follow-up visit.
Endoscopic ultrasound is mainly recommended to assess and diagnose upper and lower digestive tract disorders. If you want to know the Endoscopic Ultrasound Cost in Delhi or need the Best Endoscopic Ultrasound Treatment in Delhi, visit Manipal Hospitals.