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Heart Valve Repair & Replacement

Heart valve repair is a surgical procedure used to restore the normal functioning of the heart valve.  Our heart has four values namely aortic valve, tricuspid valve, mitral valve, and pulmonary valve, which keeps the blood flowing in one direction and prevents the mixing of pure and impure blood.  When one or more of these valves do not open or close properly, blood flow is disrupted.   Heart valve defects are of two types: 

  • Stenosis (narrowing or stiffening of the valves due to infection and ageing)

  • Regurgitation (leak in the valve).

Heart valve repair is recommended to preserve your heart valve and heart function. There are two types of heart value repair:

  • Annuloplasty: The ring around a valve may widen due to enlargement of the heart and may not open and close properly resulting in blood leaking backwards. Annuloplasty is performed to tighten or reshape the heart’s valve to restore the normal blood flow. 

  • Valvuloplasty: Narrowed heart valve is widened using a catheter with a balloon at the tip. 

But when your heart valve cannot be repaired, the valve may be replaced either with a mechanical valve or a biological tissue valve. There are different types of biological tissue valves used in valve replacement surgery, such as:

  • Heart valve made from a human donor’s heart tissue is called an allograft or homograft

  • Heart valve made from a pig tissue is called a porcine valve

  • Heart valve made from a cow tissue is called a bovine valve

Different types of valve replacement surgery include:

  • Aortic Valve Replacement

  • Mitral Valve Replacement

  • Double Valve Replacement (Replacing the mitral and the aortic valve)

  • Pulmonary Valve Replacement

Based on your condition, minimally invasive, or open-heart surgical approaches are used to repair or replace heart valves. The traditional open-heart surgery involves a large incision that is made in the chest and the heart is stopped for some time to repair or replace the valves. The advanced minimally invasive procedure involves multiple smaller incisions made in the chest to replace or repair heart valves.

 

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