What are Neurological Disorders?
Neurological Disorders are any disorder that affects or damages the nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. Neurological disorders can be as simple as a headache or as complicated as a stroke. They can be genetic, caused by physical injury, or acquired during a person's life.
The most common neurological disorders include Alzheimer's, Epilepsy, Parkinson's, Multiple Sclerosis, and Huntington's. They may also include Autism Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Manipal Hospitals has the best neurology doctor in Patiala and the best neurosurgeons in Patiala to help patients overcome conditions like:
Common Neurological Disorders
Acute stroke is a sudden, severe brain injury that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. Acute stroke causes part of the brain to die immediately because of a lack of oxygen. The warning signs are:
Sudden numbness or weakness of the face
Numbness on one side of the body
Sudden confusion or trouble understanding speech or writing
Sudden vision troubles
Any symptom of Acute stroke needs immediate medical attention.
Cerebrovascular diseases are disorders of the blood vessels in the brain. The most common form of these disorders is called stroke, which occurs when a clot blocks a brain artery, causing a lack of oxygen to the brain. The effects of this can be devastating and can include paralysis, loss of speech, and death.
Cerebrovascular diseases occur more commonly as people age and can result from high blood pressure, hardening of the arteries, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, obesity, or an irregular heartbeat. In addition to these risk factors, genetics also play a role in determining the development of Cerebrovascular disease.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The seizures result from abnormal or excessive neuronal activity in the brain.
Seizures are symptoms of epilepsy. An epileptic person may experience one seizure or hundreds throughout their lifetime. Seizures can vary from undetected (no specific symptoms) to causing serious physical harm or even death.
Neuromuscular diseases affect the muscles and the nerves that control them. They can cause weakness, paralysis, or both.
Neuromuscular diseases are inherited and result from exposure to viruses and other causes. Some examples of neuromuscular diseases include:
Parkinson's disease affects the brain's ability to control movement. It is a degenerative neurological condition connected to the loss of dopamine-producing cells in brain parts essential for controlling motor skills(Substantia Nigra). The disease causes tremors, stiff muscles, and difficulty walking and speaking.
Parkinson's disease is more common in older adults than younger people.
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive and degenerative brain disease that causes a person to experience Dementia. The disease is most common in people 65 or older. The common symptoms are loss of memory and other cognitive functions such as problem-solving, language, and judgment.
Multiple Sclerosis is a neurological condition that causes damage to the Myelin Sheath surrounding nerve cells, which is a layer of insulation for the nerve cells. Damage to Myelin Sheath can lead to problems with nerve impulses being transmitted and received by the brain.
Multiple Sclerosis has many possible causes, and the immune system plays a role in its development. Some people with multiple Sclerosis also have specific genes that make them more susceptible to developing this disease.
The symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis may include fatigue, blurred vision, loss of balance or coordination, numbness or tingling sensations, muscle weakness or spasms, bladder control problems, memory loss, depression, and mood changes.
Demyelinating disorders are conditions where the protective sheath around nerves is damaged, causing inflammation, weakness, and pain.
There are two main types of demyelinating disorders:
Infectious Demyelination: Viruses, bacteria, or fungi can cause this demyelination. A condition can also cause it called Multiple Sclerosis (MS), which is an autoimmune condition.
Autoimmune Demyelination: The body's immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath that protects the brain and spinal cord nerves.
EEG or "Electroencephalogram" measures the brain's electrical activity. This test uses electrodes on the scalp and skull or wires attached directly to the brain.
During EEG, doctors measure brain waves as they occur naturally during rest and sleep. They interpret these waves to determine whether or not there is a problem with brain function.
An EEG also monitors patients diagnosed with epilepsy.
An MRI is a non-invasive way to take pictures of the body. The patient lies inside a large tube that houses a magnet and radio waves. These waves produce images of the body on a computer screen.
The MRI scanner is like a tunnel with a large magnet in the centre. It has coils that send and receive radio waves. Patients are surrounded by these coils when they lie on the table inside. The patient's body acts as an antenna for these radio waves.
The scanner uses these radio waves to create pictures of the body.
A CT scan uses X-rays to produce cross-sectional body images. A computer combines the images into a 3-dimensional picture of the internal organs and structures.
A CT scan can detect neurological disorders and diseases, including cancer, infections, blood vessel damage, and abnormal growths or masses. It also determines the extent of disease in areas where it might not be easy to detect with other tests.
CT scans are painless and non-invasive. They require no preparation before the procedure other than removing any jewellery or objects that might interfere with the images.
An Ultrasound produces images of the body's internal structures using high-frequency sound waves. Ultrasound has many applications in neurology, including its use in diagnosing neurological disorders.
Ultrasound diagnoses some brain tumours, such as Meningiomas (tumours arising from the brain and spinal cord) and Epidermoid Cysts (non-cancerous bumps under the skin). It can also diagnose Intracranial Hemorrhage and other conditions that affect the brain's blood vessels.
Ultrasounds also monitor neurological disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis and Cerebral Palsy.
Lumbar Puncture, or spinal tap, is used to diagnose neurological disorders. Doctors remove a small amount of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) by inserting a needle into the lower back. The CSF presents signs of infection, inflammation or other neurological conditions on testing.
The Electromyogram (EMG) measures the muscle's electrical activity. It diagnoses neurological disorders and other conditions.
The EMG involves attaching electrodes to a patient's skin, which connect to an Electromyograph (EMG) device. These electrodes pick up the muscle's electrical signals when they contract and record them.
NCS or Nerve Conduction Study diagnoses neurological disorders. It is a painless procedure that uses electrical stimulation to measure how well the nerves transmit signals. The doctor applies electrodes to the skin and sends electrical impulses through the nerves in the arms and legs to determine their condition.
Manipal Hospitals, Patiala, has a dedicated Electrophysiology lab comprising high-precision Electroencephalogram (EEG), Video Telemetry, and Electromyography (EMG) scans, enabling the top neurologists in Patiala to diagnose neurological disorders with precision.
1.5-Tesla MRI uses Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to look at the brain and other parts of the nervous system. It can see structures too small or too deep to be seen on conventional MRI scans. 1.5-Tesla MRI diagnoses neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Multiple Sclerosis, and Spinal Cord Injury.
1.5-Tesla MRI also offers better clarity than conventional MRIs in many cases. In some instances, it can show detailed images of structures in the body that are not visible with other forms of imaging, leading to better treatments.
PET-CT (Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography) uses two different types of imaging to examine the body. The PET part of the test takes pictures using a radioactive tracer, allowing doctors to see how organs function. The CT portion of the test takes pictures using x-rays, allowing doctors to see the structure of bones and other body parts.
PET-CT is often used to diagnose neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's, Brain Tumours, and Stroke. It can also diagnose neurodegenerative disorders like Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
Molecular Diagnostics is a branch of medicine involving molecular biology and genetics to diagnose, predict, and monitor diseases.
It is a technique that identifies genetic mutations and selects targeted therapies for patients. It helps diagnose neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and early-onset breast cancer.
Neurological disorders are challenging to diagnose because they often have no apparent symptoms until they become severe or life-threatening. As such, they are often only diagnosed after extensive testing or after someone has experienced a decline in their health.
A Memory Clinic helps patients with problems related to their memory.
Memory Clinics have doctors who specialise in treating neurological disorders and provide services from diagnosis and treatment through research and education.
The goal of a memory clinic is to stop deterioration in dementia through early diagnosis and treatment and identify and treat disorders that might be contributing to the patient's problems.
Memory clinic also evaluates new treatment possibilities and assures patients.
Stroke Management involves multiple doctors and specialists. A clot that blocks the brain's blood flow may result in neurological damage that can be mild or severe.
The stroke treatment will depend on several factors, including the location of the clot and how much damage has occurred. The goal is to reduce or eliminate symptoms and prevent further damage to the brain.
Neuro Intensive Care is the treatment of neurological disorders. It can be a standalone treatment, or it can complement other treatments in order to help the body heal itself.
Neuro Intensive Care treats neurological disorders that have resulted from trauma or disease. Neuro Intensive Care aims to restore function and improve the quality of life for the brain, patients with spinal cord injury, or stroke patients. Consult with the best doctors at the best neuro hospital in Patiala.