Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Posted On Oct 27, 2022

Dr. Harish Babu Reddy N A

Consultant - Medical Gastroenterology

Manipal Hospitals - Malleshwaram - Bengaluru

gastroenterology hospital in Bangalore

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) refers to a type of intestinal disorder associated with prolonged inflammation of the digestive or gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This condition can affect one or both of the intestines either alone or in combination. The intestines swell, cause scars, turn red, and inflamed, considering the body's immune system fighting against its intestinal tissue. 

Types of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are two major types of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

  • Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

In this condition, only the large intestine is prone to inflammation(colon). The inflammation begins at the bottom of the colon (the rectum) and progresses upwards in a continuous pattern. It is, however, limited to the inner lining of the intestinal wall. UC can also affect other symptoms of the body like joints, skin, and eyes.

  • Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis

The most common symptom of Ulcerative Colitis is abdominal pain. Other symptoms that may also occur in some patients include:

  • Fatigue

  • Fever

  • Anaemia

  • Loss of appetite & Weight loss

Consult with a gastroenterology specialist in Malleshwaram, Bangalore if you are experiencing the above-mentioned symptoms.

  • Crohn’s Disease (CD)

Crohn’s Disease can cause inflammation in any part of the intestine (from mouth to anus). However, mainly the patches of the small intestine and/or colon are affected in most cases. In this condition, inflammation can spread through the multiple layers of the GI tract (intestinal) walls and result in serious complications.

  • Symptoms of Crohn’s Disease

The symptoms of Crohn’s Disease mostly depend on which part of the digestive system is affected. The most common symptoms are diarrhea and abdominal pain

Other signs and symptoms of CD are:

  • Mouth sores

  • Fever & fatigue

  • Rectal bleeding (bloody stool)

  • Constipation even in urgency

  • Reduced appetite & weight loss

  • Slowed growth & delayed sexual development in children

If you’re experiencing one or more symptoms of the above, please book an appointment at Manipal Hospitals Malleshwaram, Bangalore, the best gastroenterology hospital in Malleshwaram, Bangalore.

Causes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

IBD is both a chronic (ongoing) and relapsing (recurrence of symptoms) condition. The exact cause of IBD is unknown, but research says that the immune system in the intestine overreacts, causing inflammation & ulceration in the intestinal walls. Contrary to popular belief, there is no connection between the occurrence of IBD due to poor diet and stress. However, it may worsen the condition during a flare-up or sudden recurrence of symptoms. 

Diagnosis & Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Diagnosing IBD includes a physical examination, medical history of the patient, and one or more tests such as blood tests, X-rays, Stool tests, Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, Biopsy and Imaging tests like CT scan and MRI.

Treatment options for IBD aim to reduce abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding, control inflammation, and correct nutritional deficiencies. Depending on the condition, Gastroenterologists may prescribe nutrition supplements, steroids, anti-inflammatory drugs (mesalamine (mesacol), immunomodulators, biologic therapies, probiotics antibiotics), hospitalization, or surgery. They may also recommend topical (local) medications like enemas and suppositories which are applied directly to the affected area. 

Dos and Don’ts

There are a few recommendations on things that should be followed and avoided for patients with IBD.


  • Eat well to maintain weight.

  • Drink plenty of fluids daily.

  • Maintain a healthy diet to avoid more gastrointestinal distress.

  • Eating small meals (5/6 times) is better than two or three larger ones.

  • Exercise, yoga, meditation, and other relaxing activities like playing music, reading, etc., can help reduce stress, relieve depression, and restore bowel function.


  • Avoid high-fiber foods as they may cause diarrhea, pain, and gas.

  • Limit your intake of dairy products, spicy foods, popcorn, caffeine, chocolate, alcohol, and soda which can worsen the symptoms.

Dr. Harish Babu Reddy N A

Consultant - Medical Gastroenterology

Manipal Hospitals, Malleshwaram, Bangalore

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments | Manipal Hospitals