The heart is made of muscle tissue that supplies blood to the entire body. It is a pumping machine that has four chambers. The upper two chambers are called the atria, and the lower ones are called the ventricles. These chambers have valves present in them to keep the blood flowing from and through the heart. There are four types of valves: aortic, mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary. Every valve has flaps; the flaps of the pulmonary and aortic valves are known as cusps, and the flaps of the tricuspid and mitral valves are called leaflets. If any of these valves do not function properly or are damaged or diseased, then a surgical process is needed to restore the heart's function. This procedure is called heart valve surgery. Surgeons repair or replace the damaged valve, and many procedures exist to restore it. In a stentless heart valve surgery in Hebbal, Bangalore, the stentless valves are primarily used in pulmonary and aortic valve positions. They are either used as a full root replacement or in a sub-coronary position. In stentless heart valve surgery, surgeons use stentless valves to repair pulmonary and aortic valve positions. This can be done either as a full root replacement or a sub-coronary position.
Different types of heart valve replacement
Below are the types of surgeries in which artificial valves are used as valve replacements in heart surgeries
Aortic valve replacement- this surgery is performed on the aortic valve and done on patients with a congenital disease which causes stenosis or regurgitation.
Mitral valve replacement- this surgery is done when the valve does not close completely, and the damaged valve is replaced by a biological valve or an artificial one.
Double valve replacement – this surgery is done to replace both the aortic and mitral valves or the complete left side of the heart.
Pulmonary valve replacement- this surgery is done to treat congenital disabilities, stenosis, and other defects which restrict blood flow.
Like any surgery, a stentless valve replacement surgery follows a few standard procedures. After the doctor does the initial checks, the following steps will be taken.
Patients will be asked to remove any jewellery and metal objects
Doctors start the patient on an intravenous line that is inserted through the hand or arm. Fluids and medication are administered through this IV line, and catheters are placed on the wrist and neck to monitor the heart and blood pressure status.
A breathing tube is placed in the lungs through the mouth, and the patient is connected to a ventilator.
A transoesophageal echocardiogram is placed to monitor the function of the valves.
A catheter is used to drain urine and stomach fluids.
An incision is made in the centre of the chest if open-heart surgery is performed, and tiny incisions are made if a minimally invasive surgery is performed.
The breastbone is cut in half and separated to reveal the heart.
The doctor will stop the heart and connect the patient to a heart-lung bypass machine for the continuous flow of blood.
The doctors will replace the valve with an artificial valve or repair it if needed once the heart stops.
Once the functioning of the valve is monitored, the breastbone will be closed by sutures or stitches.
Tubes will be used to drain fluids around the heart.
The incision is closed, and the area will be bandaged.
Book an appointment at Manipal Hospitals now to know more about treatments with the help of cardiologists in Bangalore.