Complex Cervical Spine Surgeries

Cervical Spine Surgery involves removing a disc or a bone and fusing the vertebrae with a bone graft in front or behind the spine. The bone graft can be of two types - autograft (bone taken from your body) or allograft (bone taken from another person's body).

Metal plates and screws are sometimes used to stabilise the spine further, and these methods are known as instrumentation. When the vertebrae are surgically stabilised, abnormal motion is stopped, and spinal nerve function is restored.

Conditions Treated

Following are some of the examples of conditions that complex cervical spine surgeries in varthur road can treat:

  • Degenerative Disc Diseases.

  • Cervical Deformity.


The surgeon will go over the details of your surgery, such as where incisions will be made and how long you will stay in the hospital. Some surgeries are spread out over several days. Here is the procedural summary for cervical spine Surgery:

  • The incision of one to two inches long can be made on either the left or right side of the neck. The incision is typically made horizontally within a natural skin crease, though a more vertical incision is occasionally used for multilevel cases.

  • The thin muscle beneath the skin is then divided along the skin incision, and the plane between the sternocleidomastoid and strap muscles is entered.

  • A plane is then entered between the trachea/oesophagus and the carotid sheath.

  • The spine is covered by a thin fascia (flat layers of fibrous tissue) that is dissected away from the disc space.

  • During surgery, fluoroscopy provides an x-ray image of the spine and is used to confirm that the spine surgeon is at the correct disc level.

  • After determining the correct disc space, the disc is removed by cutting the outer annulus fibrosis (the fibrous ring around the disc) and then removing the nucleus pulposus (the soft inner core of the disc).

  • The entire disc is removed during an anterior cervical discectomy. The cartilage endplates of the vertebral bones are also removed, exposing the hard cortical bone beneath.

  • Dissection is performed by the spine surgeons in varthur road from the front to the back of the posterior longitudinal ligament, located between the disc and the spinal cord.

  • This ligament is gently removed to allow access to the spinal canal to remove any disc material that may have extruded through the ligament and contributed to spinal stenosis.

  • The uncinate processes, portions of the lower vertebral bone on either side that help form the disc boundaries, are also typically removed. Osteophytes (bone spurs) generally are removed here to relieve spinal cord or nerve root compression.

  • Dissection is frequently performed with an operating microscope or magnifying loupes to aid in visualising the smaller anatomic structures.

  • Following the cervical discectomy, an anterior cervical fusion is performed. The insertion of a bone graft and possibly an implant or cage into the evacuated disc space prevents disc space collapse and promotes the "fusion" of the two vertebrae into a single unit. This aids in the maintenance of decompression by providing adequate space for the nerve roots and spinal cord, as well as preventing local deformity (kyphosis).

  • When cervical fusion occurs, bone fills the space left by the disc, joining the vertebral bones above and below to form a single, solid bone.