Who is a Doctor for Internal Medicine?
A doctor who specialises in Internal Medicine is called an Internist. Internists help in the care of those patients who suffer from non-surgical illnesses. Also, those doctors who help treat and care for injuries or acute conditions are called internists. Some chronic diseases that affect ageing patients, like hormonal imbalances, metabolism-related diseases, diagnostic options, etc., are ways that an Internist will help.
The word Internal Medicine was first derived from the German phrase ‘Innere Medizin. The doctors who focused more on the inner causes of the disease rather than the outward symptoms were called Internists.
Other general physicians that are specialised in the single organs of the body may not be able to diagnose what an internist can. Some widespread illnesses that internists handle are weight loss, fatigue, loss of consciousness, dyspnea, pain in the chest, confused mind, etc. Visit our multi-speciality hospital in Varthur road, Bangalore to have the best treatment.
Some acute illnesses that affect more than one organ of the body are specially handled by internists trained to do so. They care for those patients who have multiple systems of the body affected by an underlying condition. Co-morbidities and other complex illnesses that need expert diagnosis and care afterwards are the specialities of internists.
So internists help diagnose, prevent and treat health problems that affect adults.
What are some Internal Medicine Specialities?
Some medical fields that involve in-patient and out-patient treatments in Internal medicine are listed below.
Infectious illnesses like the common cold, malaria, hepatitis, COVID-19, measles, mumps, etc.
Respiratory illnesses like asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, etc.
Endocrinology diseases like Cushing’s disease, Acromegaly, Grave’s disease, Hashimoto’s disease, Addison’s disease, etc.
Coronary diseases like high blood pressure, heart attack, unstable angina, inherited heart complications, etc.
Haematology diseases like anaemia, haemophilia, Myelofibrosis, Thalassemia, thrombocytosis, etc.
Rheumatology diseases include psoriatic arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, Rheumatoid Arthritis, SLE, Ankylosing spondylitis, etc.
Dermatology illnesses like hair diseases, moles, dermatitis, canker sores, hives, connective tissue diseases, nail diseases, etc.
Sleep diseases like insomnia, sleep apnea types, restless leg syndrome, parasomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, etc.
Non-surgical orthopaedics like physical therapy, bracing, casting, fluid drainage, joint manipulation, arthritis treatment options, etc.
Ophthalmology cases like lazy eye syndrome, corneal disease, retinopathy related to diabetes, macular degeneration, etc.
Gynaecology diseases like bacterial vaginosis, Asherman syndrome, cervical dysplasia, gestational diabetes, menopause, etc.
Palliative medicine cases like Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, liver disease, heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, etc.
Gastroenterology diseases like haemorrhoids, colon polyps, stenosis, inflammatory bowel disease, strictures, etc.
Psychiatry diseases like schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, depression, borderline personality disorder, bipolar affective disorder, etc.
Neurology diseases like Bell’s palsy, seizures, Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, epilepsy, etc.
Health Concerns Treated in Internal Medicine
This field of medicine is concerned with a wide range of medical conditions. Internal Organs like the kidneys, heart, gastrointestinal tract, spinal column, muscles, nerves, urinary tract, muscles, joints, brain, etc. that are affected by diseases are treated in this branch of medicine. Internists treat acute disorders and those illnesses that do not need surgery. An internist must be well trained to recognise and diagnose a particular disease and hence must be experienced. Management of the disease is the next step which is done either with drugs, maintenance of diet, exercise, physical therapy, etc.
Diagnosis Steps by Internists
Diagnosing an illness is the most critical part of caring for patients. Whether it is an acute illness or a chronic condition, an internist has to narrow down the most likely cause. Epidemiological relatedness is also considered when diagnosing along with prevailing endemic conditions. Sometimes ta differential diagnosis is made that will help narrow down the ultimate reason for the illness. These are compared to the most probable diseases that have related symptoms. The ‘rule-in’ and ‘rule-out’ approach is chiefly followed by choosing a required diagnostic test. The internist must be well-versed in how diseases can affect a patient with other co-morbidities.
Communicating with the patient is one of the most critical steps in diagnosing the disease. The internist uses synchronous approaches and asynchronous methods to do so. There has to be consent to go on with a particular diagnostic test or screening method from the patient or a relative of the patient. Consult with our experts to have the best treatment.
Pharmacological methods and non-pharmacological means usually treat the diagnosed disorder or disorders. Sometimes additional care needs to be given after the treatment, like rehabilitation, simple exercise regimes, physical therapy, etc. Following up with the internist after the treatment stage is completed is essential to ensure the patient is completely recovered and fit.
Once the disease has been diagnosed and treated effectively, the internist assesses the risks associated with the illness. Preventive screening measures may need to be undertaken, followed by intervention, if any. Genetic evaluation is one of the primary ways of doing so, as it simplifies the process and helps efficiently diagnose other conditions next time. Contact us at Manipal Hospitals if you have any queries.
Some patients who need surgery are often first evaluated by an internist to ensure the operative risks involved. Pre-operative expert evaluations need to be done for single assessment purposes in case of some surgeries.