Paediatric trauma refers to injuries to the brain or head during childhood, infancy, and birth. A trauma patient usually only needs observation, rest, and ice.
Depending on the severity of the injury, a device may be surgically implanted to monitor swelling and bleeding in the brain. This may be done using open surgery to control or repair the swelling. Book an appointment at Manipal Hospitals for the best treatment for Paediatric trauma in Yeshwanthpur.
Types of paediatric trauma
In the early stages of development, a child is exposed to different forms of head trauma. In most cases, accidental injuries do not require surgery. Most commonly, injuries occur during infancy and childhood. These are known as primary injuries because they are the first trauma to the head.
Laceration of the scalp
Contusion of the brain
Fractures of the skull
Haemorrhage within the brain
Hematoma in the intracranial space
An axonal injury that is diffuse
Symptoms of concussion
Secondary brain injuries can result from inflammation and cerebral oedema. Secondary injuries happen because the brain is enclosed in the skull with not enough space to move. Swelling forces the brain's delicate tissue against the inside of the skull, causing more damage. In an infant's skull, there are open sutures and the fontanelle, so the skull can expand ever so slightly to fit the swelling. It's still a serious condition and needs to be treated. It's important to monitor intracranial pressure after serious head trauma for a few days.
Paediatric trauma is diagnosed through a physical exam, where the physician asks the child and parent how the injury happened. In addition, a neurological examination is done to see if there are any changes in brain function. A hearing test, motor function test, swallowing test, eye movement test, sense of smell test, balance test, and coordination test are all part of the exam.
The Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale is used to assess a child's mental status, and the score determines whether head trauma is mild, moderate, or severe. A lower score means a more serious injury.
Diagnosis relies on imaging tests. Infants and newborns can have their brains imaged with ultrasonography to see if they've been injured or bleeding. You can do a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan on older kids. CT is superior for emergency situations and allows constant monitoring of a patient's vital signs. MRI is more sensitive, but CT is better for emergency situations. A laboratory can test your blood or urine.
Signs and symptoms
Injury type and severity determine the symptoms of paediatric trauma. These are some common symptoms,
Headaches getting worse
An unusual amount of sleep
Refusal to eat or nurse
Infants crying all the time
Factors that could cause an accident and paediatric trauma
The most common cause of paediatric trauma is a direct impact. Motor vehicle accidents, accidental bumps and falls, and recreational activities are the most common causes of paediatric trauma.
It's called coup-contrecoup, how the brain bruises and gets damaged. Trauma to the head can cause a coup lesion or a contrecoup lesion, a bruise opposite the trauma site. A contrecoup lesion happens when the brain strikes the skull on the other side. Brains can be bruised, bled, or swollen when they are jarred against the rigid skull, which can cause internal membranes, blood vessels, and tissues to be sheared. Book an appointment at Manipal Hospitals to consult with the top experts in Bangalore.
A birth-related head injury can happen for a variety of reasons
The cephalopelvic disproportion
Having a birth weight over 8 pounds, 13 ounces
Delivery with forceps