A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain brain access. It is usually performed on patients suffering from brain lesions, such as tumours, blood clots, removal of foreign bodies such as bullets, traumatic brain injury, and other medical conditions.
A few craniotomy procedures use the guidance of imaging and computers (computerized tomography [CT] scans or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) to get to the exact location within the brain that needs to be treated. It is done through a frame that is placed onto the skull or a frameless system using landmarks on the scalp or superficially placed markers. A stereotactic craniotomy is one where either one of these imaging procedures is used along with the craniotomy procedure.
Why is the procedure performed?
A craniotomy might be performed due to several reasons, including, but not limited to, the following:
Repairing or clipping an aneurysm.
Diagnosing, treating or removing brain tumours.
Repairing a fractured skull.
Removing blood clots or blood from a ruptured blood vessel.
Draining an infected pus-filled pocket in the brain, also known as a brain abscess.
Repairing a tear in the dura matter - the membrane lining the brain.
Addressing an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or removing an arteriovenous malformation (AVM).
To implant stimulator devices used for treating movement disorders like dystonia (a type of movement disorder) or Parkinson's disease.
To relieve intracranial pressure by removing swollen or damaged areas of the brain that may have been caused by stroke or traumatic injury.
There might be other reasons for a neurosurgeon to recommend a craniotomy.
For a craniotomy, a patient is required to stay at the hospital for at least 3 to 7 days. After the essential pre-surgical preparation, an intravenous (IV) line is inserted into the arm of the patient, and a urinary catheter to drain the urine. Anesthesiologists continuously monitor the heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and blood oxygen level throughout the surgery. Book an appointment at Manipal hospitals and understand the removal of bone in brain procedure.
Incisions of various types can be made during the surgery. An incision may be made from behind the hairline in front of the patient's ear and the nape of their neck, depending on the brain's affected area. Incisions may be smaller if an endoscope is used. A special device that firmly holds the head in place is used, which is removed after the surgery is complete.
The scalp is pulled up and clipped to provide clear access to the brain and control bleeding during the procedure. With the help of a medical drill, holes may be burred into the skull. The surgeon may also use a special saw to carefully cut through the skull bone. The removed bone flap is kept safe. The dura matter is then separated from the bone and cut open carefully to expose the brain. Microsurgical instruments, like a surgical microscope that magnifies the area being treated, enable the surgeon to get a better view of the brain structures and identify healthy tissue from abnormal tissue that needs fixing.
Post-procedure, tissue samples are sent to the lab for testing. After the surgery, the surgeon sews back together the layers of the tissues that had been cut open. The saved bone flap is reattached using sutures, plates, or wires. The scalp incision is closed with surgical staples or sutures, and a dressing is applied over the incision.
The process of recovery varies depending upon the type of procedure performed and the type of anaesthesia given. The patient might need oxygen for a certain period after the surgery. However, it is discontinued before they go home. Patients are taught deep-breathing exercises to help re-expand their lungs and prevent pneumonia, along with other outlined aftercare instructions. Visit Craniotomy treatment Hospital in Yeshwanthpur, Bangalore to have the best treatment.