Pancreatic Hormone Disorders

Endocrinology Hospital in Yeshwanthpur, Bangalore

The pancreas is an endocrine gland which is located in the abdominal region just below the stomach. The different types of hormones secreted by the pancreas are listed as follows.

  • Insulin

The primary reason for production is to regulate the level of glucose in the bloodstream. It triggers the cells of the body to utilise glucose thus maintaining a steady level of glucose at all times. When the production of insulin is less or absent, Diabetes Mellitus is caused. T1DM is when there is an absence or very little insulin produced. T2DM is when the body does not respond to the insulin produced. Hypoglycemia is a condition resulting from excessive insulin production and hyperglycemia results from lowered insulin production or lowered sensitivity. Tumours caused by the hormone are called insulinomas. 

  • Glucagon

It helps to regulate the level of glucose in blood within the normal range by aiding insulin. It triggers cells of the body to produce glucose leading to an increase in blood sugar levels. It is secreted when the blood glucose levels are low. Too much production leads to hyperglycemia. Tumours caused by disorders of the hormone are called Glucagonomas.

  • Gastrin

It is produced when there is food in the stomach in order to digest the food. The cells of the stomach are induced by the hormone to produce acid to digest food. Excessive production of the hormone leads to stomach ulcers due to the presence of excess acid within. The tumours caused by the hormone are called gastrinomas or Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. To know more, visit Manipal Hospitals, the best diabetes centre in Bangalore.

  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)

It is secreted in order to control the secretion of water and subsequent absorption from the intestines. It triggers the intestinal cells to release water and salts within the intestines. Excessive production of the hormone leads to watery diarrhoea and imbalances in the Sodium levels of the blood. Tumours caused by the hormone are called VIPomas. 

  • Somatostatin

This hormone controls the production and levels of the other hormones produced by the pancreas. The hormone can decrease the production of glucagon, insulin, gastrin, VIP and other endocrine hormones. It is secreted when the other hormones are secreted in excess quantities. excessive production of this hormone leads to diabetes, dietary fat tolerance as well as gallstones. Tumours formed due to somatostatin imbalances are called somatostatinomas. 

Diagnosis of any of the tumours caused by the pancreatic hormone is done with endoscopic ultrasound, CT scan, MRI scan or Octreoscan. 

Treatment of the tumours mentioned due to pancreatic hormone imbalances includes surgery of the tumours when the tumours are small and detected early. If the tumour has metastasized which is most often the case, surgery is not an option. Book an appointment at Manipal Hospitals today.

  •  Ablation is a treatment option that involves the use of extreme heat or cold for the destruction of the tumours.

  •  Chemotherapy with specific drugs for the cure of the tumours that have spread.

  •  Molecular targeted therapy destroys only the cancerous cells within. 

  • Medications to shrink the tumours or slow down the production of hormones by the pancreas gland. 

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