Cardiac bypass surgery (Heart Bypass Surgery) is a surgical procedure that improves the blood supply to the heart. It is performed when the heart is not receiving enough blood supply to function properly due to one or more blockages.
In this procedure, a healthy vein or artery from a different area of the body (arm, leg, or chest) is used to connect the portions above and below the blockage. So, the blood can bypass the blockage and start using this “graft” to reach the heart muscles. Depending upon the severity, more than one bypass may be required.
Why is the procedure performed?
Coronary arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to and from the heart. In some people, a build-up of fat can cause narrowing or complete blockage of one or more of these arteries. Cardiac bypass surgery helps treat such conditions. Visit Manipal Hospitals for Cardiac Bypass Surgery in Yeshwanthpur, Bangalore.
Doctors may suggest it if,
The person is experiencing severe chest ache while resting or during light exercise.
More than one diseased artery has been identified, and the main pumping chamber of the heart (the left ventricle) is not functioning properly.
The artery which supplies most of the blood to the left ventricle is severely narrow or blocked.
The blockage cannot be treated with other procedures like angioplasty, or previous attempts have been unsuccessful.
There was a stent placed to keep the artery functioning, but the artery subsequently narrowed.
Other early symptoms of heart disease, like abnormal heart rhythms, palpitations, and shortness of breath, are observed.
Emergencies such as heart attacks and when there is a lack of response to alternative treatments.
The patient will be required to change into a hospital gown and lay on the operating table. The person will then be assisted with medication, fluids, and general anaesthesia using an IV by a team of specialists. A breathing tube attached to a ventilator will be inserted through the mouth of the patient to enable continued breathing.
The patient may or may not be connected to a cardiopulmonary machine that will circulate oxygenated blood throughout the procedure. If connected, a perfusion technologist will be present. The surgical site is cleaned with an antiseptic solution. The cardiovascular surgeon will then make an incision along the breastbone. The rib cage is spread apart to expose the heart. The surgeon may also opt for minimally invasive surgery involving smaller incisions and specialised miniaturised equipment with robotic assistance.
The surgeon will remove a healthy blood vessel from elsewhere in the body. One end of the blood vessel will be attached above the blockage, and the other end is attached below. The graft is tested for proper functioning. Once the bypass is working, the person will be stitched up and bandaged. The person will then be shifted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for continued monitoring. The breathing tube will be retained until the person gains consciousness and starts breathing normally.
The person may need to spend up to two days in the ICU. To aid recovery, the person may undergo cardiac rehabilitation through a specific exercise plan while at the hospital. Thereafter, the person will be monitored in outpatient settings. This is continued until the person can safely follow a home-based care regime.
If there are no complications, the person is likely to get discharged in as little as one week. The person may need four to six weeks for recovery, resume work and perform other daily activities. During this time, assistance may be required. Book an appointment today for a consultation with the experts.