The Organs of Gastrointestinal Science
An organ in the abdomen that secretes hormones and enzymes that help digest food, release insulin, and control blood sugar levels. It sits next to the small intestine. The pancreas has two parts: the Exocrine (also called the acinar or digestive) and the Endocrine (also called the islet or hormone-producing). The exocrine part releases enzymes to help digest food. The endocrine part releases insulin into the bloodstream and glucagon into a muscle called the liver (which helps release glucose from storage). Some common conditions related to the pancreas include Pancreatitis, Diabetes Mellitus Type-1, Gallstones, Cancer, Cystic Fibrosis (a genetic condition), and Pancreatic Cancer.
An organ that performs several vital functions, including aiding digestion, regulating sugar in the blood, storing vitamins and minerals, helping fight infections, and more. Many different conditions can damage the liver. These include alcohol abuse/Alcoholic Liver Disease, Hepatitis B and C, Fatty Liver Disease, Autoimmune Hepatitis, Hemochromatosis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).
A fist-sized organ that stores bile, produced by the liver, releases it into the small intestine to aid digestion. The gallbladder is present under the liver, near the middle of the upper abdomen. The common conditions include Gallbladder Disease (chronic inflammation), Gallstones, and Gallbladder Cancer. Get the finest treatment with the help of a team of experts at the best liver hospital in Pune.
- The Gastrointestinal Tract
A series of hollow organs that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. It aids digestion, absorbs nutrients, eliminates waste and comprises:
The digestive system converts food into nutrients. It is a process that involves following steps.
Food enters the mouth as teeth chew it.
Food goes to the Oesophagus, where it passes through to the stomach.
Digestion begins in the stomach, and enzymes break down food into smaller particles.
The tiny particles then pass through the small intestine, where absorption occurs.
Finally, waste products exit the body via the anus or colon.
Common Gastrointestinal Conditions
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
A chronic digestive disorder that causes frequent heartburn, acid regurgitation, and other symptoms include stomach pain, hoarseness or chronic cough, asthma, or recurring pneumonia.
Treatment includes lifestyle changes such as reducing alcohol consumption, smoking cessation, weight loss, medications to reduce acid secretion in the stomach, and surgery when medical therapy fails to control symptoms.
A condition in which the small intestine's first part, Duodenum, breaks down. It results in an open sore (hole) within this lining, which causes pain and bleeding. The symptoms are pain in the upper abdomen, sometimes extending to the back or shoulder blade, nausea and vomiting, heartburn, loss of appetite and weight loss. Treatment may include lifestyle changes such as avoiding certain foods or stopping smoking, medication, or surgery that removes part of the stomach or Duodenum.
- Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
A group of conditions affecting the digestive system but do not result from any underlying physical abnormalities. The symptoms can be similar to those of more severe conditions, like Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The treatment includes medication and lifestyle changes.
- Gastrointestinal (GI) Bleeding
The sudden or gradual blood loss from the digestive tract, the most common symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding, are:
The treatment manages the bleeding causes.
- Pancreaticobiliary Diseases
The conditions that affect the pancreas and biliary tract often result in abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice.
Treatment for pancreaticobiliary diseases may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy.
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), also known as Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, is a group of conditions that cause digestive tract inflammation. The symptoms include pain and cramping, diarrhoea, blood in the stool and weight loss. While there is no proven cure, treatments help manage symptoms.
A sudden loss of liver function resulting from viruses, toxins, and Disease. Symptoms include fever, jaundice, dark urine, and pale stools. The most common treatment is replacing lost blood.
A condition that causes damage to the liver over time, often due to alcohol abuse. This condition can lead to liver failure, which is fatal if left untreated. It also results from obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes.
Symptoms of chronic liver disease include jaundice, fatigue and weight loss.
A form of cancer in the liver may result from long-term exposure to toxins such as alcohol and acetaminophen. Liver malignancy often presents itself with jaundice, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss.
Liver malignancy is treated with chemotherapy drugs or surgery to remove the tumour.
- Gastrointestinal Malignancy
A type of cancer that affects the Gastrointestinal Tract and occurs in any part of the digestive system, including the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, Rectum, and Appendix. Gastrointestinal malignancies are often grouped based on where they occur in the body.
Gastrointestinal tumours can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and weight loss. Treatment for these cancers depends on location and how advanced they are. Some treatments include surgery, Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy.
Manometry determines the pressure of muscle contractions. It diagnoses Gastrointestinal conditions, including Peptic Ulcer Disease, Gastroparesis, and Hiatal Hernia. Manometry involves measuring pressure in the stomach and Oesophagus with a tube or catheter-like instrument called a Manometer.
A colonoscopy uses a Colonoscope (thin, flexible tube) to examine the inside of the large intestine. A colonoscopy can diagnose gastrointestinal conditions such as Polyps, Diverticulitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Colonoscopy also detects cancers of the Colon and Rectum.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) diagnoses Gastrointestinal conditions. The procedure involves inserting an endoscope into the patient's Oesophagus, then through the stomach and Duodenum, and finally into the liver's bile ducts. The doctor can use this method to evaluate patients with suspected Gallstones, Pancreatitis, or other conditions affecting their Digestive Tract.
A Hydrogen Breath Test measures hydrogen gas in the breath produced by certain bacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract. It can assess the presence of bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance, and other conditions.
- OGD - Oesophago-Gastro Duodenoscopy
OGD, or Oesophago-Gastro Duodenoscopy, involves inserting a tiny camera through the mouth and into the stomach and Duodenum. The camera will then provide images that can identify abnormalities in the digestive system.
Endoscopic Ultrasound produces images of the body's internal structures using sound waves. It helps to investigate the Gastrointestinal Tract.
EUS can help doctors determine whether there are abnormalities within these organs that may require further treatment or surgery. It allows for more accurate diagnosis of conditions such as Crohn's Disease, cancer, and other cancers affecting internal organs.
A Liver Scan is a noninvasive procedure that uses radioactive material to create an image of the liver and surrounding organs. Liver scans diagnose gastrointestinal conditions and diseases, such as Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, and cancer.
- Gallbladder Stones Surgery
Gallbladder stones are small, hard deposits that form inside the gallbladder, a small organ near the liver. They can cause irritation and inflammation in the gallbladder, which results in pain. Depending on size and location, gallstone treatment needs surgery or medication.
Surgery involves removing the gallbladder entirely or partially through an incision below the rib cage. Suppose only part of the gallbladder needs to be removed (called a partial cholecystectomy). In that case, it may be possible to leave part of this organ behind to continue producing bile for digestion.
Appendix Surgery removes the Appendix. It typically occurs when there are complications from Appendicitis, an inflammation of the Appendix. The Appendix is a small tube-like structure connecting to the lower right abdomen's large intestine. Appendix surgery can happen via minimally invasive techniques or open surgery.
Rectal Prolapse Surgery corrects the condition in which the rectum (the lower part of the large intestine) protrudes out of the anus. Rectal prolapse may result from straining, childbirth or other factors.
The surgeon makes an incision around the anus and may remove any tissue that has prolapsed out of the anus, depending on its size. The surgeon creates a new muscle wall between the rectum and anal canal to prevent future problems with prolapse.
A Splenectomy removes the Spleen from the body. The Spleen is an organ that sits near the stomach and helps to filter blood.
This procedure treats infections and cancer and is a common surgery performed on children with Sickle Cell Disease or Thalassemia, two types of Anaemia.
- Stapled Haemorrhoidectomy
Stapled Haemorrhoidectomy combines two different procedures in order to treat Haemorrhoids. The first part of the procedure involves applying small staples to the hemorrhoidal tissue to reduce swelling. In contrast, the second part of the procedure involves removing any remaining inflamed tissue.
A Sleeve Gastrectomy removes about 80% of the stomach and restricts the amount of food one can eat. It is a popular bariatric surgery.
The surgeon makes a vertical cut on the abdomen and removes a portion of the stomach, leaving only a tiny tube-like pouch about one-quarter of its original size.
The surgeon sews the remaining part of the stomach to create a food outlet to pass into the intestine, where nutrients absorb before being passed out as waste through the rectum.
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass is a weight loss surgery that involves creating a tiny pouch structure at the stomach's top and then rerouting the small intestine, ensuring food can bypass most of the stomach. The surgery allows people who are morbidly obese to eat smaller portions and feel complete.
- One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass
One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass is a bariatric surgery that divides the stomach into two parts by connecting a small part of the stomach to the small intestine. This approach creates a smaller stomach pouch and allows food to bypass the rest of the digestive tract. One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass helps patients who are severely obese, have failed to lose weight with dieting and exercise programs, or have other conditions that require surgical intervention.
The Duodenal Switch involves removing most of the stomach, leaving a smaller pouch and connecting it to the small intestine's last part. The procedure treats people who are obese, have diabetes and high blood pressure and want a permanent weight loss solution.
- Endoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (ESG)
Endoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (ESG) is a type of bariatric surgery that reduces the size of the stomach and limits how much food it can hold.
The surgeon makes three minor cuts in the abdomen and inserts a narrow tube (Endoscope) to see inside the body.