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Colorectal Cancer Surgery

Surgical Oncology treatment in Mysore

Although surgery is the most effective treatment for colorectal cancer, the oncologist sometimes suggests minimally invasive procedures like removing polyps through a colonoscopy. In other cases, when cancer has affected the length of the entire colon, the colon has to be removed completely. 

Prepping for colorectal surgery involves emptying the bowels for the removal of unnecessary matter within. This cleaning of the colon can be done with pills, enemas or drinks. Once the laxatives are taken, the patient has to spend the next few hours in the bathroom till the bowels are cleaned up. 

If the cancer is detected in the initial stages, a local procedure is sufficient to remove the cancerous cells. The surgeon does not cut through the abdomen to remove the tumour. But in advanced-stage cancers, the rectum and/or colon may have to be removed depending on the extent of tissues affected. Book an appointment to have the best treatment.

Polypectomy and endoscopic resection

A simple colonoscopy can be used to extract any small cancerous growths when detected at stage 1 of cancer. The camera is attached to a long narrow tube called a colonoscope that also has a cutting facility attached. The cancerous growths are accessed via the anus, and no cutting of the abdomen is needed. 

The procedure is called a Polypectomy when there is a removal of a polyp from the colon. When there is a removal of cancerous growths along with additional surrounding cells, the procedure is called a local excision. The normal anal route is taken for this colonoscopy too but the procedure is slightly more complicated and may take a longer duration to recover from. An Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR) is done when there is a removal of stage one and stage two colon cancer growths through a colonoscopy. 

Colectomy

The surgery of removing cancerous growths by resection of part of the colon or removal of the entire colon is called a colectomy. It may be performed as a minimally invasive procedure called a laparoscopic colectomy. An open surgery calls for the patient to remain in the hospital for a longer duration as the recovery takes more time. With the laparoscopic colectomy, the surgeon makes four to five small incisions on the abdomen. The laparoscope with the camera is inserted through one of the incisions, and the other instruments to excise the cancerous growths are inserted through the other incisions. 

If cancer has spread throughout the colon, the entire colon will have to be removed. This is known as a total colectomy and may have to be done when there are scores of polyps formed on the colon, and polypectomy is not possible. It may also be needed when the patient suffers from inflammatory bowel disease. 

When part of the colon is to be removed, the surgeon removes some of the healthy cells besides the cancerous cells too. The remaining parts of the colon are attached again to each other in a procedure called a Hemicolectomy or segmental resection, or partial colectomy. This is done so as to not allow any gaps in the colon. Sometimes, the surrounding lymph nodes will have to be removed too. 

A colorectal cancer surgery normally takes about 1 to 3 hours, depending on the extent of cancer spread in the colon or surrounding areas. Visit our cancer care hospital in Mysore for the best treatment.

Colostomy

This involves the creation of a hole called a stoma in the abdomen, which is then connected to the colon. This is done to bypass any surgically operated colon or the rectal part where the stool is directed towards the stoma. A colostomy bag is attached to the exterior to collect the solid waste from the body. 

Proctectomy

This is a surgical procedure performed to remove the rectum areas affected by cancer. When the cancer cells from the upper rectum parts are removed, the procedure is called Lower Anterior Resection (LAR). The remaining rectal areas that are healthy are then reconnected. Sometimes the surrounding lymph nodes may also have to be removed. 

When the procedure involves the removal of cancerous tissues from the lower rectum areas close to the anus, it is called an Abdominoperineal resection. The anal sphincter may have to be removed partially or fully depending on the spread of the cancer. A colostomy may have to be performed to allow the excretion of body waste in a methodical manner. 

Another procedure called Anastomosis is performed to remove the rectum fully which is followed by connecting the colon to the anus. This allows easy passage of the stools from the body. 

Pelvic Exenteration is another type of procedure involved in colorectal surgery where the rectum, urinary bladder or other organs in the pelvic area are removed.

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