Posted On Aug 22, 2022
Polycystic Ovary Disorder (PCOD) is a hormonal condition that affects the reproductive organs of females. Ovaries are responsible for controlling the menstrual cycle and the production of hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, inhibin, relaxin, etc. The eggs are not released consistently, which results in an accumulation of eggs and later swelling of the ovary, making it release an increasing amount of male hormones, androgens. Hence, it leads to infertility among women.
Approximately 5–10% of women are suffering from PCOD at their reproductive age (ranging from 12–45 years) across the globe. PCOD is also known as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome), and if it is not treated, it may result in major complications such as diabetes, obesity, heart diseases, and increased cholesterol levels.
The cause of PCOD is still unknown. But some of the important factors responsible for affecting women with PCOD include:
A high level of insulin in the body increases androgen level (a male hormone which is less in females) causing problems in ovulation among women.
The abnormal production of androgen hormones by the ovaries results in acne and hirsutism.
Women suffering from PCOD tend to have low-grade inflammation, causing increased androgen production and problems within the blood vessels and heart.
Women suffering from PCOD have shown some genetic associations, such as 50% of women have the possibility of inheriting the PCOD from their relatives, which in later stages of life results in type 2 diabetes and other related risk factors, along with the involvement of complex and multiple genes.
Uncontrollable PCOD conditions in women cause various health issues, including difficulty conceiving and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes developing early. Patients suffering from PCOD are at risk of developing perinatal complexities, mainly involving the issues of gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. Also, an increased risk of endometrial cancers is found among the patients. Other complications include high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and chances of breast cancer development.
PCOD can be managed effectively by using different diagnostic and treatment approaches. The occurrence of symptoms such as irregular periods, unwanted hair growth like males on women’s chest, face, and back, acne, hair fall, etc. has involved some of the diagnostic tests such as:
Monitor the reproductive organs physically for the presence of any masses, abnormalities, or any growth.
It helps in understanding the hormone level, involving fasting lipid profile (checking cholesterol level, HDL, triglycerides, LDL, and glucose tolerance tests).
It involves the use of ultrasound imaging tests for checking the ovary size, the lining of the uterus, and cysts in the ovary.
Tests for depression, anxiety, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are determined.
PCOD can be managed by lifestyle modifications and by integrating appropriate treatment. The lifestyle modifications and hormone remedies are balanced by adopting the following steps:
It helps in maintaining the BMI, which in turn helps in improving the cholesterol level, reducing high blood pressure, preventing heart-related disease, diabetes, and maintaining the insulin and androgen level. It will further help in restoring the ovulation phase in the menstrual cycle.
PCOD patients should follow a low-carb or complex carbohydrate diet that is effective in maintaining their insulin level. Consumption of fish, meat, eggs, and vegetables such as seeds of sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, etc. is recommended. Avoiding sugar and starch foods such as potatoes, bread, rice, pasta, and beans is also suggested to prevent PCOD. Consult with the Gynaecologist in Mangalore to have more clarity on the treatment plan.
Performing regular exercises and becoming active helps in regulating blood sugar levels and keeping weight under control.
The PCOD treatment entirely depends upon the symptoms. Some of the modalities included in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Treatment in Mangalore are:
Recommendation of medicines for treating insulin resistance and maintaining hormone balance for the menstrual cycle.
Skin treatments for acne, pigmentation, and hair growth.
The availability of fertility drugs for infertile patients.
Injections are recommended for ovulation induction.
Requirement of second-line therapy in some cases.
Adolescent patients are treated with hormones and metformin for regularizing their periods and insulin resistance while it is treated aggressively in women who are trying to conceive.
Consultant- Obstetrics & Gynaecologist
Manipal Hospitals, Mangalore
5 min read