What is cirrhosis? What really happens?
Cirrhosis is a condition in which scar tissue replaces liver tissue. It's a slow and steady process. The scar tissue has an impact on the liver's normal structure and cell regeneration. As a result, its functionality is reduced. The scar tissue also has an impact on how blood flows through the liver. This causes a rise in back pressure, resulting in a disease known as portal hypertension. The patient is at a high danger of a life-threatening haemorrhage at this point.
Cirrhosis can take years to develop and can go unnoticed until severe liver damage has occurred. Before symptoms occur, approximately 80% of the liver is usually destroyed. This is due to chronic liver tissue injury induced by a variety of factors such as:
Chronic viral infection
Excessive alcohol consumption
Fatty liver and many others
Initial symptoms are:
Loss of appetite
Loss of sex drive, etc
The patient develops one or more of the following symptoms as the liver condition worsens and reaches the stage of decompensated liver disease:
The skin, as well as the whites of the eye, appear yellow (jaundice)
Dark, tarry-looking stools
A susceptibility to bleed or bruise readily
Swollen legs (odema) or stomach (ascites – abdominal waterlogging)
The therapy for liver cirrhosis entails taking a complete medical history and conducting a thorough examination of the patient, after which we will perform blood tests and scans to diagnose the extent of the liver illness as well as the state of other organ systems. For some conditions, special blood tests and scans such as CT/MRI may be recommended. A tailored treatment plan will be charted based on the aforesaid findings. This will involve medications, dietary changes, vaccines, and, if necessary, transplant planning.
Regular follow-up is critical since the dosage of medications must be adjusted based on the response. Follow-up is also necessary to identify situations that do not respond to medical treatment or worsen. It is critical to identify patients that do not respond to medical treatment as soon as possible. Transplantation should be recommended at the appropriate moment to provide the best potential outcome for the patient.
When is it required to have a liver transplant?
Cirrhosis that has only recently developed is not a reason for a transplant. The most common and common reason for a liver transplant is "end-stage liver disease," which is an advanced state of cirrhosis in which the liver has lost its ability to do even the very minimum to keep you alive. This occurs gradually over months, with rising bilirubin levels, ascites, and encephalopathy. But what causes ESLD in the first place? A variety of factors can deteriorate or destroy liver function to the point that a liver transplant is required.
Viruses that cause inflammation and persistent liver diseases, such as hepatitis B, C, and D.
Certain drugs, such as alcohol
Autoimmune hepatitis is a condition in which the immune system of the body malfunctions and damages liver tissue.
Obesity and a lack of sugar management. Fat deposits form in the liver, resulting in 'non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).'
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are liver illnesses that worsen over time and cause liver failure.
Tumors of the liver
Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, monochromatic, Wilson's disease, and polycystic liver disease are examples of inherited metabolic and genetic disorders.
Biliary atresia is the most common cause of ESLD in children.
When should we Not do a liver transplant?
First and foremost, as previously stated, the beginning of cirrhosis alone is not a reason for transplantation. Even if you meet the transplant criteria from a liver standpoint, there are situations when you should not do a transplant. A transplant is clearly not a smart idea when the patient has significant, irreversible non-liver-related medical issues that are likely to increase the risk of death during the procedure.
Here are a few examples:
Severe pulmonary hypertension
Cancer that has spread to other organs besides the liver
Systemic or uncontrollable infection
Active substance abuse (drugs and/or alcohol)
Non-compliance or inability to follow a stringent medical regimen in the past
Severe, uncontrolled psychiatric disease
When is it appropriate to undergo a liver transplant?
Ah! It's not easy at all...!! When it comes to the timing of a liver transplant, there are various aspects to consider. Swelling of the abdomen due to fluid accumulation, bleeding, jaundice, or mental state disruption (due to elevated ammonia), for example, are symptoms of decompensated liver disease and imply the necessity for transplantation. But, do we have to wait till all of these symptoms appear in patients? - No way! Because patients might occasionally decline rapidly and face a significant risk of death before receiving a transplant, it's important to keep this in mind. To guide the time of transplant in these patients, statistical models like the Child-Pugh score and the MELD score have been established.
Unfortunately, not every patient who requires a liver transplant will be able to receive one. Patients may develop renal and lung issues as a result of their liver condition; if these organs have been severely damaged, a liver transplant becomes too risky. All candidates in good centres are subjected to a thorough evaluation to determine their suitability, which must occur after the transplant surgeon has seen and examined a patient. We do not believe in just registering patients without first seeing them since we believe this puts them at risk.
In the instance of a cadaveric transplant, the projected waiting period of an organ must also be considered by the clinicians considering the transplant candidate, in addition to patient concerns.
If you are looking for a hospital for liver disease treatment in Vijayawada then book an appointment with Manipal Hospital now!
How can we Help with Viral Hepatitis?
Hepatitis caused by the hepatitis viruses A, B, C, or E is a prevalent infectious disease that affects over a billion people worldwide each year. It imposes a significant financial, social, and health-related burden on the affected individual, family, and healthcare system. Hepatitis A and E are spread through contaminated food and water, whereas hepatitis B and C are spread through tainted blood and bodily fluids.
Hepatitis A and B vaccinations are both accessible and effective. Vaccination, in combination with other preventive measures, can readily stop the disease from spreading. This is simple to accomplish while visiting South Asian Liver Institute. Furthermore, even if you have been exposed to such viruses, we may check you out in South Asia to determine what type of therapy you may require to try to eradicate the viruses and avoid additional liver damage. To avoid the transmission of hepatitis B and C, we carefully screen blood before transfusions in South Asia.
How can we Help With Fatty Liver Disease?
A healthy liver should have a low-fat content (less than 10%). Up to one out of every four persons in India's cities is thought to be suffering from the early stages of NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), a condition in which the liver contains significantly more fat than normal.
Early-stage NAFLD normally has no symptoms, but as it progresses, it can cause major liver damage, including cirrhosis. High levels of fat in the liver are also linked to an increased risk of significant health issues like diabetes and high blood pressure. We at South Asian can help you locate or at least estimate the quantity of fat in your liver without any invasive tests and an approximate degree of harm if any from this fat because prevention of development is only achievable in the early stages of NAFLD. Once we have this information, we can modify your treatment to ensure that you experience the fewest possible issues in the future.
We identify people who are at high risk for this and, with a few tests, can detect the presence of NAFLD if it is present. Patients with NAFLD may also have other metabolic problems, which we strive to detect at the same time in South Asia. We customise medical therapy to each patient's needs, which usually entails a multi-modal approach that combines medical therapy with lifestyle adjustments and nutritional recommendations. South Asian will monitor our NAFLD patients to verify that their liver functions are normal, as well as to detect any patients who aren't so that medical therapy, such as stringent weight loss and sugar control, can be optimised and a transplant avoided.
Manipal Hospital is one of the best liver care hospitals in Vijayawada equipped with the latest technologies and techniques to take care of the patients and give them the best treatment available. The hospital has some of the best gastroenterologists in Vijayawada who have many years of experience in treating and diagnosing liver-related problems.
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