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Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a condition which refers to the scarring of the glomeruli (the filtering units of the kidneys). It is a progressive kidney disease which can lead to end stage renal disease (ESRD) in nearly 2.3% of the affected patients.
Usually, the patient with primary FSGS does not exhibit any symptoms in the initial stages. However, as the disease progresses, the below symptoms may be presented:
If the disease progresses further, it can produce the symptoms of kidney failure such as a headache, decrease in appetite, itching, shortness of breath and nausea.
Take medical help if the above symptoms are noticed. It is important to seek medical help especially for the symptoms such as fever, pain during urination and a decrease in the urinary output.
FSGS which results without an obvious cause is termed as primary FSGS or idiopathic FSGS, unlike secondary FSGS which has multiple causes.
Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis can occur in both children and adults. The factors which can increase the risk of developing this condition include:
The complications which may occur if primary FSGS is not treated properly are:
If the doctor suspects FSGS from the symptoms, then he or she will perform a physical examination of the patient to check for the presence of the following:
Primary FSGS gives negative results for systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis B or C infections and vasculitis.
It is very challenging to treat primary FSGS as the exact cause is not clear. Although there is no complete cure for FSGS, treatment only aims at delaying the progression of the condition and improving the symptoms.
Medicines such as corticosteroids and immuno-suppressive agents are given to calm down the immune system and prevent the attack of healthy glomeruli. Additionally, the below precautions are taken by the doctor during the management of primary FSGS:
The other medicines used to manage primary FSGS are:
If the condition has progressed to kidney failure then the treatment options include:
Additionally, the doctor will suggest restrictions in the diet which include:
Preventive measures for primary FSGS are not known.
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