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Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that produces a rapid discharge of nerve impulses causing recurrent seizures. The affected individual may behave in an unusual manner, he may experience muscle spasms, loss of sensation over the hands and feet and loss of consciousness.
Epilepsy is basically classified into two types, namely:
Seizures usually last from a few seconds to minutes. However, mild seizures last for a few seconds, which makes it difficult to differentiate mild seizures over other neurological disorders. This can be achieved only by proper diagnosis and treatment of seizures that helps in minimizing further complication of the seizures.
Seizures are observed among all age groups; however, the incidence of seizures is higher in children and older adults. This condition occurs more in men when compared to women.
Seizures usually arise due to:
Types of seizures and associated symptoms
According to the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures, seizures are classified as:
These seizures affect the whole brain and are generally classified into six types, namely:
These seizures are also known as focal seizures and it may last for a few seconds. Partial or focal seizures are classified into two types, namely:
Some of the risk factors of epilepsy include:
The diagnosis of epilepsy includes neurological examination, blood tests and image scans. Neurological examination helps in determining the mental function, motor abilities and behavioural pattern of the individual. Blood and culture tests help in determining the cause of infection and the suitable choice of drug treatment for epilepsy.
The other image scans performed to diagnose epilepsy are:
Depending on the severity of the condition, epilepsy is treated either through medication therapy or surgery.
Anti-epileptic drugs are used in the treatment of seizures. The dose and the duration of the medicine depend on the intensity of the condition. However, do not stop taking the medicine even if there is a decrease in the severity of the condition as the doctor prescribes maintenance dose to prevent recurrence of seizures.
The doctor may recommend a surgery if seizures are not treated through medicines. The surgical procedure depends on the nature and severity of the seizure. Some of the surgical procedures performed to treat seizures are:
Management and Coping
Seizures can be effectively managed by use of medicines and lifestyle modifications in day-to-day life. Regular use of medicines is the most vital aspect of managing epilepsy.
Adequate sleep during night is essential to prevent seizures, as lack of sleep affects the normal function of the brain that triggers seizures.
A regular exercise keeps away depression and keeps the body and mind healthy. This helps lower the risk of developing seizures.
It is advised to maintain a healthy diet and avoid the use of alcohol, as it promotes healthy living and prevents neurological and emotional outbursts.
Geeta Dutta, a patient from West Bengal got in touch with Dr Venugopal Subramaniam, Consultant Neurosurgeon at Manipal Hospitals Whitefield through the OPD clinic programme and then later was guided by him towards a craniotomy & brain tumour removal.
Manika Saha, a patient from West Bengal got in touch with Dr. Venugopal Subramaniam, Consultant Neurosurgeon at Manipal Hospitals Whitefield through the OPD clinic programme and then later was guided by him towards a brain tumour removal in Whitefield, Bengaluru which gave her vision back.
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