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A heart attack is a fatal condition that occurs due to the reduced blood flow caused by blockage of the arteries that supply blood to the heart. The blockage may occur due to the deposition of fat cells, inflammatory substances or cholesterol; the buildup of these substances narrows the arteries that decrease the supply of blood to the heart. This leads to heart attack or myocardial infarction.
Signs and symptoms
The most common signs and symptoms of heart attack include:
A heart attack occurs due to the deposition of cholesterol, fat cells, or inflammatory substances. These contribute to the formation of plaques in the arteries and restrict the blood flow to the heart muscle, which is referred as atherosclerosis. The formed plaques rupture and combine with the blood-clotting agents and platelets to form clots, this blocks the blood flow through the artery and increases the risk of heart attack.
The factors that increase the risk of heart attack include:
A heart attack can result in the following complications:
A heart attack is a serious condition that seeks immediate medical attention. The tests performed to diagnose heart attack are:
The treatment should not be delayed if any symptoms of heart attack are experienced. Seeking an immediate medical attention can reduce further risks and complications associated with heart attack. Depending on the diagnosis, the following are the treatment options for heart attack:
Medications: Medications such as ACE inhibitors help in controlling the blood pressure. Anti-coagulant and anti-platelet medications prevent the blood clots and enable the free flow of blood in the arteries. Nitroglycerin is prescribed to help in widening the blood vessels. Thrombolytics dissolve the blood clots and increase the blood flow to the heart.
Coronary angioplasty: Coronary angioplasty helps in widening or correcting the blocked coronary artery.
Stent placement: A stent is placed in the blocked area of the blood vessel to restore the blood flow to the heart muscle.
Coronary artery bypass surgery: A healthy blood vessel is connected to the blocked artery of the heart to bypass the blocked route for a free flow of the blood.
The following are the lifestyle changes that help you to prevent the risk of heart attacks:
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